Tag Archives: Enuma Elish

Enuma Elish – Passing Time on Planet X

Enuma_002

The Epic of Creation
Gods of the New Millennium
Alan Alford

Where did the Gods come from? According to the Sumerians, the Gods came to Earth from a planet called Nibiru.

Their descriptions of that planet match precisely the specification of the so-called “Planet X”, which is currently being sought by modern astronomers within our own Solar System. This planet is believed to have an elliptical orbit that takes it into the depths of space, well beyond the orbit of Pluto – hence it has not been seen in recent times.

The scientific evidence and ongoing search for Planet X will be dealt with later in this chapter, but first we must review a mass of evidence that traces the history of that planet from the early days of the Solar System right up to the legendary Flood, which I will date to 13,000 years ago. Our quest for Nibiru/Planet X begins with an extraordinary source – a 4,000 year old Babylonian text known as the Enuma Elish.

In 1876, George Smith of the British Museum published his translation of this sacred Babylonian epic, pieced together from broken clay tablets such as that shown in Figure 1. Smith had already caused international headlines with his earlier translation of a Flood text which paralleled the Biblical tale. The Enuma Elish caused an equal stir, for it appeared to represent a creation myth that was far more detailed than the brief Biblical account of Genesis 1.

Nevertheless, for one hundred years, the Enuma Elish was dismissed as mythology – an imaginative account of a cosmic battle of good against evil – and the Babylonian New Year ritual which had developed around it was similarly regarded as meaningless superstition. To the uneducated eye, the Enuma Elish is a tale of battles between one “God ” and another, the hero of which was Marduk, the chief deity of the Babylonians.

The educated scholar, however, realizes that the Babylonians were heirs to the Sumerian culture, and that the vast majority of Babylonian myths are politicized versions of Sumerian originals. The key question is this: if the very UN-Sumerian ritual and political aspects are stripped away from the Enuma Elish, does the tale indeed represent an earlier Sumerian document with valid scientific credentials?

In 1976, Zecharia Sitchin came forward with an amazing, but as yet unrefuted claim, that the Enuma Elish is a cosmological epic, accurately describing the formation of the Solar System 4.6 billion years ago!

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Enuma Elish – “When on High…”

Enuma_002

Enuma Elish: “When on High . . .”
The Mesopotamian/Babylonian Creation Myth

The Enuma Elish is a Babylonian or Mesopotamian myth of creation recounting the struggle between cosmic order and chaos. It is basically a myth of the cycle of seasons. It is named after its opening words and was recited on the fourth day of the ancient Babylonian New Year’s festival. The basic story exists in various forms in the area. This version is written in Akkadian, an old Babylonian dialect, and features Marduk, the patron deity of the city of Babylon. A similar earlier version in ancient Sumerian has Anu, Enil and Ninurta as the heroes, suggesting that this version was adapted to justify the religious practices in the cult of Marduk in Babylon.

This version was written sometime in the 12th century BC in cuneiform on seven clay tablets. They were found in the middle 19th century in the ruins of the palace of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh. George Smith first published these texts in 1876 as The Chaldean Genesis. Because of many parallels with the Genesis account, some historians concluded that the Genesis account was simply a rewriting of the Babylonian story. As a reaction, many who wanted to maintain the uniqueness of the Bible argued either that there were no real parallels between the accounts or that the Genesis narratives were written first and the Babylonian myth borrowed from the biblical account.

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Enuma Elish – The Babylonian-Mesopotamian Epic of Creation

Enuma Elish

The Enuma Elis is the Babylonian creation myth (named for its incipit). It was recovered by Henry Layard in 1849 (in fragmentary form) in the ruined library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (Mosul, Iraq), and published by George Smith in 1876.

The Enuma Elish has about a thousand lines and is recorded in Old Babylonian on seven clay tablets, each holding between 115 and 170 lines of text. The majority of Tablet V has never been recovered, but aside from this lacuna the text is almost complete. A duplicate copy of Tablet V has been found in Sultantepe, ancient Huzirina, located near the modern town of Sanlõurfa in Turkey.

This epic is one of the most important sources for understanding the Babylonian worldview, centered on the supremacy of Marduk and the creation of mankind for the service of the gods. Its primary original purpose, however, is not an exposition of theology or theogony, but the elevation of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, above other Mesopotamian gods.

The Enuma Elish exists in various copies from Babylonia and Assyria. The version from Ashurbanipal’s library dates to the 7th century BC. The story itself probably dates to the 18th century BC, the time when the god Marduk seems to have achieved a prominent status, although some scholars give it a later date (14th to 12th centuries BC.)

Enuma Elish – Passing Time on Planet X
Gods of the New Millennium; Alan Alford

In 1976, Zecharia Sitchin came forward with an amazing, but as yet unrefuted claim, that the Enuma Elish is a cosmological epic, accurately describing the formation of the Solar System 4.6 billion years ago!

Enuma Elish – “When on High…”
The Mesopotamian/Babylonian Creation Myth

The Enuma Elish is a Babylonian or Mesopotamian myth of creation recounting the struggle between cosmic order and chaos. It is basically a myth of the cycle of seasons. It is named after its opening words and was recited on the fourth day of the ancient Babylonian New Year’s festival. The basic story exists in various forms in the area. This version is written in Akkadian, an old Babylonian dialect, and features Marduk, the patron deity of the city of Babylon. A similar earlier version in ancient Sumerian has Anu, Enil and Ninurta as the heroes, suggesting that this version was adapted to justify the religious practices in the cult of Marduk in Babylon.

The Seven Tablets of Creation
Luzac’s Semitic text and translation series. vol. xii-xiii; Leonard William King

This is an etext of L.W. Kings’ authoritative work on the Enuma Elish, the Babylonian creation myth. This etext includes the complete introduction, and the English text of the Enuma Elish and other related texts, with selected footnotes. The Enuma Elish is the earliest written creation myth, in which the God Marduk battles the chaos Goddess Tiamat and her evil minions. The name ‘Enuma Elish’ is derived from the first two words of the myth, meaning ‘When in the Height’. Tiamat takes the form of a gigantic snake, and Marduk battles and defeats her using an arsenal of super-weapons. After his victory Marduk is made the leader of the Gods by acclamation. Marduk divides Tiamat’s corpse into two portions, the upper half becoming the sky and the lower half, the earth. Marduk then creates humanity from his blood and bone.

The Enuma Elish has long been considered by scholars to be primary source material for the book of Genesis. It has also been hypothesized that this is a legend about the overthrow of the matriarchy or records of some cosmic catastrophe.