Tag Archives: Epic of Gilgamesh

Epic of Gilgamesh Addenda – Tablet 12

Scholars disagree about the relation of Tablet XII to the other eleven tablets. The general consensus is that it was an appendage added to the other Gilgamesh stories at a later date.

This tablet presents a stark contrast to the earlier eleven in style and content. The appearance of a “resurrected” Enkidu is especially startling. In light of these inconsistencies with Tablets I-XI, why include Tablet XII?

Gilgamesh_002Tablet XII provides further insight into some of the major themes and questions explored in the first eleven tablets. Is there an afterlife? What is the nature of it? What earthly behaviors are rewarded there? By the conclusion of Tablet XI, Gilgamesh was forced to accept the limits of mortal existence and be satisfied with its attainable rewards. Questions about the “state of being” in death had fiercely possessed him, however, and the answers remained a mystery.

The defining and “coming to terms” with human mortality has been the province of every system of religious beliefs throughout history. Here is our first recorded vision of an afterlife. it is for these reasons that Tablet XII is included here.
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Epic of Gilgamesh – Sha naqba īmuru

The Epic of Gilgamesh (Sha naqba īmuru) was written on 12 clay tablets in cuneiform script. It is about the adventures of the historical King of Uruk (somewhere between 2750 and 2500 BCE). This later 12-tablet verse version was found in the library of the 7th-century BCE Assyrian King Ashurbanipal.


The Flood Tablet, the eleventh tablet of the Epic, describes the meeting of Gilgamesh with Utnapishtim (British Museum).

The Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (reigned 669-631 BC) collected a library of thousands of cuneiform tablets in his palace at Nineveh. It included letters, legal texts, lists of people, animals and goods, and a wealth of scientific information, as well as myths and legends.

The best known of these was the story of Gilgamesh, a legendary ruler of Uruk, and his search for immortality. The Epic of Gilgamesh is a huge work, the longest piece of literature in Akkadian (the language of Babylonia and Assyria). It was known across the ancient Near East, with versions also found at Hattusas (capital of the Hittites), Emar in Syria and Megiddo in the Levant.

This, the eleventh tablet of the Epic (pictured above), describes the meeting of Gilgamesh with Utnapishtim. Like Noah in the Hebrew Bible, Utnapishtim had been forewarned of a plan by the gods to send a great flood. He built a boat and loaded it with all his precious possessions, his kith and kin, domesticated and wild animals and skilled craftsmen of every kind.

Utnapishtim survived the flood for six days while mankind was destroyed, before landing on a mountain called Nimush. He released a dove and a swallow but they did not find dry land to rest on, and returned. Finally a raven that he released did not return, showing that the waters must have receded.

This Assyrian version of the Old Testament flood story was identified in 1872 by George Smith, an assistant in The British Museum. On reading the text he… ‘jumped up and rushed about the room in a great state of excitement, and, to the astonishment of those present, began to undress himself.’

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