Chapter 2: When Paradise Was Lost

“…The Expulsion was only the start of a new phase in that relationship that can be characterized as hide-and-seek, in which direct encounters become rare and visions or dreams become divine devices.

“The beginning of this post-Paradise relationship was far from auspicious; it was, in fact, a most tragic one. Unintentionally it brought about the emergence of new humans, Homo sapiens sapiens. And as it turned out, both the tragedy and its unexpected consequence planted the seeds of divine disillusionment with Humankind.

Mr. Sitchin relates here the incident of Abel-Cain, the sons of Adam and Eve, according to the Book of Genesis; he then continues:

“What was this “mark of Cain”? The Bible does not say, and countless guesses are just that – guesses. Our own guess (in the Lost Realms) was that the mark might have been a genetic change, such as depriving the line of Cain of facial hair – a mark that would be immediately obvious to whoever shall find them. Since this is a mark of recognition of Amerindians, we have suggested that since Cain “went away from the presence of Yahweh and resided in the Land of Nod, East of Eden,” his wanderings took him and his offspring farther into Asia and the Far East, in time crossing the Pacific to settle in Mesoamerica

“…Whatever the destination of Cain or the nature of the mark were, it is clear that this final act in the Cain-Abel drama required a direct Divine Encounter, a close contact between the deity and Cain so that the “mark” could be emplaced.

“…To find answers regarding those early times, we have to fish for information in the extra-biblical books, of which the Book of Jubilees is one. Called by scholars Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, they include the Book of Adam and Eve that survived in several translated versions ranging from Armenian and Slavonic to Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic (but not the original Hebrew).

“…Since the death of Adam was the first natural passing of a mortal, Eve and Seth knew not what to do. They took the dying Adam and carried him to the “region of Paradise,” and there sat at the Gates of Paradise until Adam’s soul departed from his body. They sat bewildered, mourning and crying. Then the Sun and Moon and the stars darkened “the heavens opened” and Eve saw celestial visions. Raising her eyes she saw “coming from the heavens a chariot of light, born by four bright eagles. And she heard the Lord instruct the angels Michael and Uriel to bring linen clothes and shroud Adam as well as Abel (who has not yet been buried); so were Adam and Abel consecrated for burial, then the two of them were carried by the angels [messengers] and buried, “according to the commandment of God, in the place where the Lord obtained the soildust” for the creation of Adam.

“There is a wealth of pertinent information in this tale…

“…In the case of prophetic dreams (of which more later) such a throwback in time would only serve to reinforce the fact that such dreams have been indeed deemed an undisputed channel between the deities and humans throughout recorded history.

“…The existence of pictorial depictions from that far back, in prehistory [preceding the Deluge] [(that had occurred, by our calculations, some 13,000 years ago)] is no secret. What is virtually a secret is the fact, that besides animals, and some human figures, those drawings and paintings also depicted what we nowadays call UFOs.

“We refer to what is known as Cave Art, the many drawings found in caves in Europe where Cro-Magnon Man made his home. Such “decorated-caves” as scholars call them have been found especially in the southwest of France and the north of Spain… they created astoundingly beautiful works of art. Occasionally depicting humans as hunters, and sometimes their hunting weapons… the depictions by and large are those of Ice Age animals: bison, reindeer, ibexes, horses, oxen, cows, felines, and here and there also fish and birds. There is no doubt that the anonymous artists painted what they had actually seen. Timewise they span millennia from about 30,000 to 13,000 years ago.

“…The inclination to view the Cave Art as religious art also stems from the plastic finds. These consist mainly of “Venus” figurines – statuettes of females known as the Willendorf Venus whose date is approximately 23000 B.C. Since the artists could also render the female shape perfectly naturally… it is believed that the ones with exaggerated reproductive parts were intended to symbolize or seek – “pray for” – fertility; so that while the natural ones represented “Eves,” the exaggerated ones (“Venuses”) expressed veneration of a goddess.

The Willendorf Venus

The Willendorf Venus

“…Merlin Stone, [among others in the book] in his book When God Was a Woman considered the phenomenon “dawn of a Stone Age Garden of Eden” and linked the worship of a Mother Goddess to the later goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon. One of the nicknames of Ninmah, who had assisted Enki in the creation of Man, was Mammi; there is no doubt that it was the origin of the word for “mother” in almost all languages. That she was revered already some 30,000 years ago is no wonder – for the Anunnaki had been on Earth for far longer, with Ninmah/Mammi among them.

“The question is, though, how did Stone Age Man, more specifically Cro-Magnon Man, know of the existence of these “gods”?

“Here, we believe, come into play another type of drawings found in those Stone Age caves. If they are mentioned at all (which is rarely), they are referred to as “markings.” But these were not scratches or incoherent lines. These “markings” depict well-defined shapes – shapes of objects that, nowadays are referred as UFOs …

“…Since all the other depictions in the decorated caves are of animals, etc., actually seen and most accurately rendered by the cave artists, there is no reason to assume that in the case of the “markings” they depicted objects that were abstract imaginings. If the depictions are of flying objects, then the artists must have actually seen them.

“Thanks to those artists and their handiwork, we can rest assure that when Adam and Eve – in pre-Diluvial times – claimed to have seen “celestial chariots,” they were recording fact, not fiction.

“…We have already examined such sources in respect to the creation of the Adam and of Eve and the Garden of Eden. Let us now examine the Cain-Abel tragedy. Why did the too feel obliged to offer the first fruits or yearlings to Yahweh, why did he pay heed only to the offering of Abel, the shepherd, and why did the Lord then rush to appease Cain by promising him that he, Cain would rule over Able?

“This answers lie in a realization that, as in the tale of creation, the biblical version compresses more than one Sumerian deity into a single, monotheistic one.

“Sumerian texts include two that deal with disputes and conflicts between farming and shepherding. They both hold the key to an understanding of what had happened by going back to a time before of domestication of either grains or cattle, a “time when grains had not yet been brought forth, had not yet vegetated … when a lamb had not yet been dropped, there was no she-goat.” But the “black-headed people” had already been fashioned and placed in the Edin, so the Anunnaki decided to give to NAM.LU.GAL.LU – “Civilized Mankind” – the knowledge of and tools for “the tilling of the land” and the “keeping of sheep”; not however, for the sake of Mankind but ” for the sake of the gods,” to assure their satiation.

“The task of bringing forth the two forms of domestication fell to Enki and Enlil

“…After an initial idyllic period, Lahar and Anshan (“grains” and “woolly cattle”) began to quarrel. A text named by scholars The Myth of Cattle and Grain reveals that in spite of the effort to separate the two by “establishing a house,” a settled way of life, for Anshan (the farmer) and putting up sheepfolds in the grasing lands for Lahar (the shepherd) and in spite of the abundant crops and bountiful sheepfolds, the two began to quarrel. The quarrel began as the two offered these abundances to the “storehouse of the gods.” At first each just extolled his own achievements and belittled those of the other. But the argument became so volatile, that both Enlil and Enki had to intervene. According to the Sumerian text, they declared Anshan – the farmer – the more surpassing.

“More explicit in its choice between the two food producers and two ways of life is a text known as The Dispute Between Emesh and Enten, in which the two come to Enlil for a decision as to who of them is the more important. Emesh is the one who “made wide stalls and sheepfolds”; Enten, who dug canals to water the lands, asserts that he is the “farmer of the gods.” Bringing their offerings to Enlil, each seeks to be granted primacy. Enten boasts how he made “farm touch farm,” his irrigation canals “brought water in abundance,” how he “made grain increase in the furrows” and he “heaped high in the granaries.” Emesh points out that he “made the ewe give birth to the lamb, the goat to give birth to the kid, cow and calf to multiply, fat and milk to increase,” and also how he obtained eggs from nests made for the birds and caught fish from the sea.

“But Enlil rejects the pleas of Emesh, even repriminds him: “How could you compare yourself to your brother Enten!” he tells him, for it is Enten “who is in charge of the life-producing waters of all the lands.” And water spells life, growth, abundance.

“…It is noteworthy that in the above quoted lines Enlil calls Emesh a brother of Enten – the same relationship as that between Cain and Abel. This and other similarities between the Sumerian and biblical tales indicate that the former were the inspiration for the latter. The preference of the farmer over the shepherd by Enlil can be traced to the fact that he was the one to introduce farming while Enki accounted for the domestication of livestock.

“…All in all, there can be little doubt that the Cain-Abel rivalry reflected a rivalry between the two divine brothers. It flared up from time to time…

“…A question rarely asked is, where did Cain obtained the very notion of killing? In the Garden of Eden Adam and Eve were vegetarians, eating only fruits of the trees. No animal was slaughtered by them. Away from the Garden there were only four humans, none of who has yet died (and certainly not as result of foul play). In such circumstances, what made Cain “come upon his brother Abel and kill him”?

“The answer, it seems, lies not among men but among the gods. Just as the rivalry between the human brothers reflected a rivalry between the divine brothers, so did the killing of one human by another emulated the killing of one “god” by another. Not of Enki by Enlil or vice versa – their rivalry never reached such vehemence – but still the killing of one leader of the Anunnaki by another.

“The tale is well documented in Sumerian literature. Scholars call it The Myth of Zu… [Ninurta, the foremost of Enlil carried out the sentence].

“…Sumerian texts, the origin of and inspiration for the tales of Genesis, not only fill the bare-bones biblical versions with details, they also provide the background for understanding the events. One more aspect of the human experience this far can be explained by the divine encounters. The sins of Adam/Eve and of Cain are punished by nothing more severe than Expulsion. That too appears to be an application of an Anunnaki form of punishment to the created humans. It was once meted to Enlil himself, who “date-raped” a young Anunnaki nurse (who in the end became his wife).

“By combining the biblical and Sumerian data, we are now in a position to put the record of Mankind’s beginnings in a time frame supported by modern science.

“…A point that is usually ignored, but which we find highly significant, is that all through the narratives concerning Man’s creation, the Garden of Eden episode, and – most intriguing – in the story of the birth of Cain and Abel, the Bible refers to the humans as THE Adam, a generic term defining a certain species. Only in chapter 5 of Genesis, that begins with the words “This is the book of the genealogies of Adam,” does the Bible drop the “the.” It is only then that it starts to deal with a specific forefather of the human generations; but significantly, this listings omits Cain and Able, and proceeds from the person called Adam straight onto his son Seth, the father of Enosh. And it is only for Seth’s son Enosh that the Hebrew term meaning “human being” is employed; for that is what Enosh meant: “He who is human.” To this day the Hebrew word for “Humankind” is Enoshut, “that which is like, that which stems from, Enosh.”

“…whom the Bible considers the real progenitor of Humankind as it came to be in the ancient Near East.

“…It is in respect to Enosh that the Bible states (Genesis 4:26) that it was in his time that Humankind “began to call upon the name of Yahweh.” It must have been an important development, a new phase in Humankind’s history, for the Book of Jubilees states in almost identical words that it was Enosh “who began to call on the name of the Lord on Earth.” Man had discovered God!

“Who was this new human, “Enosh-man,” from a scientific point of view?

Evolution of Homo Sapiens

“…Was he [Enosh] the progenitor of what we call Neanderthal Man, the first true Homo sapiens? Or was he already the ancestor of Cro-Magnon Man, the first true Homo sapiens sapiens that still walks the Earth as the current human beings? Cro-Magnon Man (so named after the site in France where his skeletal remains were found) appeared in Europe some 35,000 years ago, replacing there the Neanderthal Man (so named after the discovery site in Germany) who can be traced there to 100,000 years ago… caves in Israel reveal Neanderthals were migrating through the Near East at least some 115,000 years ago, and Cro-Magnons had dwelt in the area already 92,000 years ago. Where do The Adam and Eve, the first created humans, and Adam and Eve, the progenitors of Seth and Enosh, fit into all that? What light do the Sumerian King Lists and the Bible shed on the issue, and how does it all correlate to modern scientific discoveries?

“…The genetic markers for Homo sapiens, first studied through the Mitochondrial DNA that is passed by the female alone, and then through studies of Nuclear DNA that is inherited from both parents… indicate that we all stem from a single “Eve” that lived in southeast Africa between 200,000 to 250,000 years ago. Studies released in May 1995 of the Y chromosome indicate a single “Adam” ancestor some 270,000 years ago.

“The Sumerian data, we have concluded, places the creation of The Adam at about 290,000 years ago – well within the time scales for the two progenitors that modern science now suggests. How long the stay at the Garden of Eden, the attainment of the ability to procreate, the expulsion back to southeast Africa, and the Cain-Abel birth had taken place, the ancient texts do not state. Fifty thousand years? Whatever the exact time lapse, it seems evident that the “Eve” who was back in southeast Africa, bearing offspring to the Adam, fits well chronologically with the current scientific data.

“With those early humans gone from the stage, the time came for the specific Adam and his line to appear.

Mr. Sitchin includes in his book an interesting calculation of time from Adam (the specific individual) to the Deluge.

“Moreover, as we have shown earlier in this chapter, THE Adam and the person Adam were not one and the same. First there was the interlude in the Garden of Eden, then the Expulsion. How long that interlude lasted, the Bible does not say.

“…The solution offered here by us leads to astounding results. It places the Adam-Seth-Enosh line right in the time slot when Neanderthals and then Cro-Magnons passed through the Lands of the Bible as they spread toward Asia and Europe. It means that the individual (not the generic) Adam was the biblical Man whom we term Neanderthal, and that Enosh, whose name meant “Human” was the biblical term for what we call Cro-Magnon – the first Homo sapiens sapiens, indeed the forefather of Enoshut, today’s humanity.

“It was then, the Bible asserts, that humanity “began to call upon the name of Yahweh.” Man was ready for renewed Divine Encounters; and some that then occurred were truly astounding

The Myth of Cattle and Grain

The myth [see note] involving Lahar, the cattle-god, and his sister Ashnan, the grain-goddess, represents another variation of the Cain-Abel motif in Near East mythology. Labar and Ashnan, according to our myth, were created in the creation chamber of the gods in order that the Annunnaki, the children and followers of the heaven-god An, might have food to eat and clothes to wear.

But the Anunnaki were unable to make effective use of the products of these deities; it was to remedy this situation that man was created. All this is told in an introductory passage which, because of its significance for the Sumerian conception of the creation of man.

The passage following the introduction is another poetic gem; it describes the descent of Lahar and Ashnan from heaven to earth and the cultural benefits which they bestow on mankind:

In those days Enki says to Enlil:
“Father Enlil, Lahar and Ashnan,
They who have been created in the Dulkug,
Let us cause them to descend from the Dulkug.”
At the pure word of Enki and Enlil,
Lahar and Ashnan descended from the Dulkug.
For Lahar they (Enlil and Enki) set up the sheepfold,
Plants, herbs, and . . . they present to him;
For Ashnan they establish a house,
Plow and yoke they present to her.
Lahar standing in his sheepfold,
A shepherd increasing the bounty of the sheepfold is he;
Ashnan standing among the crops,
A maid kindly and bountiful is she.

Abundance of heaven . . . ,
Lahar and Ashnan caused to appear,
In the assembly they brought abundance,
In the land they brought the breath of life,
The decrees of the god they direct,
The contents of the warehouses they multiply,
The storehouses they fill full.

In the house of the poor, hugging the dust,
Entering they bring abundance;
The pair of them, wherever they stand,
Bring heavy increase into the house;
The place where they stand they sate, the place where they sit they supply,
They made good the heart of An and Enlil.

But then Labar and Ashnan drank much wine and so they began to quarrel in the farms and fields. In the arguments which ensued, each deity extolled its achievements and belittled those of its opponent. Finally Enlil and Enki intervened, but the end of the poem which contains their decision is still wanting.

NOTE: The poem consists of close to 200 lines of text reconstructed from the following tablets and fragments: BBI 8; BE XXXI 15; CBS 7344, 7916, 15161, 29.15.973; HAV 6; Ni 2308, 4036, 4094; SEM 38, 54, 55, 56, 57; SRT 25, 44. The following groups form “joins”: CBS 7344 + 7916 + SEM 5 + SEM 77; CBS 29.15.973 + SEM 38. All in all, therefore, we now have 17 pieces belonging to the myth, and the statement in SL 322 no. 5 is to be modified accordingly (the number 9 there given resulted from the fact that the four fragments constituting the first “join” mentioned above were counted as one while the 5 pieces Ni 2308, 4036, 4044, SEM 38, and SRT 41 were not identified until after the publication of SL). The first 70 lines of the poem were transliterated and translated by Chiera in SRT pp. 26 ff.

Emesh and Enten: Enlil Chooses the Farmer-God

This myth [see note] is the closest extant Sumerian parallel to the Biblical Cain-Abel story, although it ends with a reconciliation rather than a murder. It consists of over three hundred lines, only about half of which are complete; because of the numerous breaks, the meaning of the text is therefore often difficult to penetrate. Tentatively the contents of the poem may be reconstructed as follows:

Enlil, the air-god, has set his mind to bring forth trees and grain and to establish abundance and prosperity in the land. For this purpose two cultural beings, the brothers Emesh and Enten, are created, and Enlil assigns to each specific duties. The text is so badly damaged at this point that it is impossible to make out the exact nature of these duties; the following very brief intelligible passages will at least indicate their general direction:

Enten caused the ewe to give birth to the lamb, the goat to give birth to the kid,
Cow and calf he caused to multiply, much fat and milk he caused to be produced,
In the plain, the heart of the wild goat, the sheep, and the donkey he made to rejoice,
The birds of the heaven, in the wide earth he had them set up their nests.
The fish of the sea, in the swampland he had them lay their eggs,
In the palm-grove and vineyard he made to abound honey and wine,
The trees, wherever planted, he caused to bear fruit,
The furrows…,
Grain and crops he caused to multiply,
Like Ashnan (the grain goddess), the kindly maid, he caused strength to appear.
Emesh brought into existence the trees and the fields, he made wide the stables and sheepfolds,
In the farms he multiplied the produce,
The … he caused to cover the earth,
The abundant harvest he caused to be brought into the houses, he caused the granaries to be heaped high.

But whatever the nature of their original duties, a violent quarrel breaks out between the two brothers. Several arguments ensue, and finally Emesh challenges Enten‘s claim to the position of “farmer of the gods.” And so they betake themselves to Nippur where each states his case before Enlil.


Three of the designs depict a deity in close relation with a plow. In the upper design two gods are guiding a plow, which is perhaps drawn by a lion and a wormlike dragon. In the second, a seated god is holding a plow in front of him. Behind him is a mountain from which sprouts a plant and on which an ibex is ascending; in front of him a deity leads a worshipper carrying a gazelle in his arms. In the lower design an unidentified deity holding a plow is traveling in a boat whose stern ends in a snake and whose prow ends in the body of a god who is propelling the boat.

The third design seems to depict an offering scene to the right of the inscription. A worshipper carrying a gazelle is followed by a goddess holding a vase, from which flow two streams of water. The worshipper stands before another goddess who may perhaps be identified as Inanna in the role of the goddess of war. But it is the two deities to the left of the inscriptions which interest us here mostly. Both seem to have ears of grain sprouting from their shoulders, but the male god is equipped with club and bow, while a ram frolics at his feet. He may perhaps be identified as Lahar, the cattle-god, while the goddess facing him may be Ashnan, the grain goddess.

(Reproduced, by permission of the Macmillan Company, from Henri Frankfort, Cylinder Seals, plates XXa, d, e, and XIXe.)

Plate XII - Gods of Vegetation

Plate XII – Gods of Vegetation

Thus Enten complains to Enlil:

“O father Enlil, knowledge thou hast given me, I brought the water of abundance,
Farm I made touch farm, I heaped high the granaries,
Like Ashnan, the kindly maid, I caused strength to appear;
Now Emesh, the … the irreverent, who knows not the heart of the fields,
On my first strength, on my first power, is encroaching;
At the palace of the king …”

Emesh’s version of the quarrel, which begins with several flattering phrases cunningly directed to win Enlil’s favor, is brief but as yet unintelligible. Then:

Enlil answers Emesh and Enten:
“The life-producing water of all the lands, Enten is its ‘knower,’
As farmer of the gods he has produced everything,
Emesh, my son, how dost thou compare thyself with Eaten, thy brother?”
The exalted word of Enlil whose meaning is profound,
The decision taken, is unalterable, who dares transgress it!

Emesh bent the knees before Enten,
Into his house he brought …, the wine of the grape and the date,
Emesh presents Enten with gold, silver, and lapis lazuli,
In brotherhood and friendship, happily, they pour out libations,
Together to act wisely and well they determined.
In the struggle between Emesh and Enten,
Enten, the steadfast farmer of the gods, having proved greater than Emesh,
… O father Enlil, praise!

NOTE: The poem consists of approximately 308 lines of text reconstructed from the following tablets and fragments: BBI 7; CBS 3167, 10431, 13857, 29.13.464, 29.16.142, 29.16.232, 29. 16.417, 29.16.427, 29.16.446, 29.16.448; Ni 2705, 3167, 4004; SEM 46; SRT 41; STVC 125. The following groups form “joins”: BBI 7 + 29.16.142; 13857 + 29.16.427 +29.16.446 + 29.16.448.

Continue to Chapter 3: The Three Who to Heaven Ascended