The biblical tale of Man’s creation is, of course, the crux of the debate—at times bitter—between Creationists and Evolutionists and of the ongoing confrontation between them—at times in courts, always on schools boards. As previously stated, both sides had better read the Bible again ( and in its Hebrew original); the conflict would evaporate once Evolutionists recognized the scientific basis of Genesis and Creationists realized what its text really says.
…The sequence in the Bible is, as previous chapters should have made clear, a description of Evolution that is in accord with modern science. The insurmountable problem arises when Creationists insist that we, Mankind, Homo sapiens sapiens, were created instantaneously and without evolutionary predecessors by “God”… this is the tale of Man’s creation as told in chapter 2, verse 7 of the book of Genesis—according to the King James English version; and this is what the Creationist zealots firmly believe.
Were they to learn the Hebrew text—which is, after all, the original—they would discover that, first of all, the creative act is attributed to certain Elohim—a plural term that at the least should be translated as “gods,” not “God.”
Then, of course, there exists the other problem, that of another (and prior) version of the creation of Man, in Genesis 1:26-27. First, according to the King James version, “God said, Let us make men in our image, after our likeness…"
What, those who believe in the Bible must ask, is going on here?
As both Orientalists and Bible scholars now know, what went on was the editing and summarizing by the compilers of the Book of Genesis of much earlier and considerable more detailed texts first written down in Sumer. Those texts, reviewed and extensively quoted in The 12th Planet with all sources listed, relegate the creation of Man to the Anunnaki.
The Anunnaki, the Elohim of the biblical verses, did not create Man from nothing. The being was already there, on Earth, the product of evolution. All that was needed to upgrade it to the required level of ability and intelligence was to “bind upon it the image of the gods,” the image of the Elohim themselves…—the inner, genetic makeup—of the Anunnaki; in other words, to upgrade the existing Apeman/Apewoman through genetic manipulation and, by jumping the gun on evolution, bring “Man”—Homo sapiens—into being.
In The 12th Planet it was stressed that until the Bible begins to relate the genealogy and history of Adam, a specific person, the Book of Genesis refers to the newly created being as “The Adam,” a generic term. Not a person called Adam, but, literally, “the Earthling,” for that is what “Adam” means, coming as it does from the same root as Adamah, “Earth.” But the term is also a play on words, specifically dam, which means “blood” and reflects, as we shall soon see, the manner in which The Adam was “manufactured.”
Numerous texts in varying states of preservation or fragmentation have been inscribed on Mesopotamian clay tablets. In sequels to The 12th Planet the creation “myth” of other peoples, from both the Old and New Worlds, have been reviewed; they all record a process involving the mixing of a godly element with an earthly one. As often as not, the godly element is described as an “essence” derived from a god’s blood, and the earthly element as “clay” or “mud.” There can be no doubt that they all attempt to tell the same tale, for they all speak of the First Couple. There is no doubt that their origin is Sumerian, in whose texts we find the most elaborate descriptions and the greatest amount of detail concerning the wonderful deed: the mixing of the “divine” genes of the Anunnaki with the “earthly” genes of Apeman by fertilizing the egg of an Apewoman.
It was fertilization in vitro—in glass tubes (this fact is recorded on a cylinder seal, appearing on the book)…
Mr. Sitchin uses in his book the texts of the Atra Hasis, to relate the story of the creation of Man.
…Great scientist that he was, Enki [son of Anu, the leader of the Anunnaki “gods”] was bound to have spent some of his time studying the flora and fauna of his surroundings as well as the fossils that, some 300,000 years later, the Leakeys and older paleontologists have been uncovering in southeastern Africa. As scientists do today, Enki, too, must have contemplated the course of evolution on Earth. As reflected in the Sumerian texts, he came to the conclusion that the same “seed of life” that Nibiru had brought with it from its previous celestial abode had given rise to life on both planets; much earlier on Nibiru, and later on Earth, once the latter had been seeded by the collision.
The being that surely fascinated him most was Apeman… And Enki must have toyed with the intriguing challenge of “playing God” and conducting experiments in genetic manipulation.
Having reached this stage, where genetic manipulation was sufficiently perfected to enable the determination of the resulting body’s good or bad aspects, the two [Enki and Ninti] felt they could master the final challenge: to mix the genes of hominids, Apemen, not with those of other Earth creatures but with the genes of the Anunnaki themselves. Using all the knowledge they had amassed, the two Elohim set out to manipulate and speed up the process of Evolution. Modern Man would have undoubtedly eventually evolved on Earth in any case, just as he had on Nibiru, both having come from the same “seed of life.” But there was still a long way and a long time to go from the stage hominids were at 300,000 years ago to the level of development the Anunnaki had reached at that time. If, in the course of 4 billion years, the evolutionary process had been earlier on Nibiru just 1 percent of that time, Evolution would have been forty million years ahead on Nibiru compared with the course of evolution on Earth. Did the Anunnaki jump the gun on evolution on our planet by a million or two million years? No one can say for sure how long it would have taken Homo sapiens to evolve naturally on Earth from the earlier hominids, but surely forty million years would have been more than enough time.
All the texts dealing with this event make it clear that Ninti relied on Enki to provide the earthly element [clay or mud, from the Sumerian, TI.IT, literally meaning “that which is with life”; “egg”]
The task of obtaining the “divine” elements was Ninti’s. Two extracts were needed from one of the Anunnaki, and a young “god” was carefully selected for the purpose… to obtain the god’s blood and shiru… What had to be obtained from the blood was termed TE.E.MA… “personality” “that which houses that which binds the memory.” Nowadays we call it a “gene.”…Shiru “flesh”; in other texts dealing with non-Anunnaki offspring of the “gods” as kisru… “semen.”
These two divine extracts were to be mixed well by Ninti in a purifying bath, and it is certain that the epithet lulu (“The mixed one”) for the resulting Primitive Worker stemmed from this mixing process. In modern terms we would call him a hybrid.
All these procedures had to be performed under strict sanitary conditions… The place where these procedures were carried out was a special structure called in Akkadian Bit Shimti, which, coming from the Sumerian SHI.IM.TI literally meant “house where the wind of life is breathed in”—the source, no doubt, of the biblical assertion that after having fashioned Adam from the clay, Elohim “blew in his nostrils the breath of life.” The biblical term, sometimes translated “soul” rather than “breath of life,” is Nephesh. The identical term appears in the Akkadian account of what took place in the “house where the wind of life is breathed in” after the purifying and extracting procedures were completed…
The mixing of the “clay” with the component extracts and “essences” was not yet the end of the procedure. The egg of the Apewoman, fertilized in the “purifying baths” with the sperm and genes of the young Anunnaki “god,” was then deposited in a “mold,” where the “binding” was to be completed…
…The fertilized and “molded” egg was to be re-implanted in a female womb—but not in that of its original Apewoman. Rather, it was to be implanted in the womb of a “goddess,” an Anunnaki female…!
Enki announced to the gathered Anunnaki that his own spouse, Ninki… had volunteered for the task…
The newborn’s fate thou shalt pronounce;
Ninki would fix upon it the image of the gods;
And what it will be is “Man.”
It was not, the texts reveal, a simple and smooth birth-giving process…
The tenth month arrived –
the period of opening the womb had elapsed.
The drama of Man’s creation, it appears, was compounded by a late birth; medical intervention was called for.
The first Adam was brought forth. By himself, as the first biblical version states—confirmed the validity of the process and opened the way for the continuation of the endeavour… Now the procedures were genetically engineered to come up with seven males and seven females at a time… fourteen goddesses were used… There is thus no conflict among the Bible’s various versions of Man’s creation. First, the Adam was created by himself; but then, in the next phase, the Elohim indeed created the first humans “male and female.”
Fortunately, as we enter the last decade of the twentieth century of the Common Era, we have the benefit of modern science on our side. The “mechanics” of cell replication and human reproduction, the function and codes of the genes, the cause of many inherited defects and illnesses—all these and so many more biological processes are now understood; perhaps not yet completely but enough to allow us to evaluate the ancient tale and its data.
With all this modern knowledge at our disposal, what is the verdict on that ancient information? Is it an impossible fantasy, or are the procedures and processes, described with such attention to terminology, corroborated by modern science? The answer is yes, it is all the way we would do it today—the way we have been following, indeed, in recent years.
The beginnings of genetics are now credited to Gregor Johann Mendel, an Austrian monk who, experimenting with plant hybridization, described the hereditary traits of common peas in a study published in 1866… Genetic engineering has of course been practiced in horticulture… called grafting… Grafting has also been tried in recent years in the animal kingdom, but with limited success between donor and recipient due to rejection by the recipient’s immune system.
The next advance, which for a while received great publicity, was the procedure called Cloning. Because each cell—let us say a human cell—contains all the genetic data necessary to reproduce that human, it has the potential for giving rise, within a female egg, to the birth of a being identical to its parent. In theory, cloning offers a way to produce an endless number of Einsteins or, heaven help us, Hitlers.
Experimentally the possibilities of cloning began to be tested with plants, as an advanced method to replace grafting. Indeed the term cloning comes from the Greek klon which means “twig.”
Adapting this technique from plants to animals proved more tricky… When the experiments shifted to mammals, mice and rabbits were chosen because of their short reproductive cycles… Other experiments relating to the cloning of mice seemed to indicate that for a mammal’s egg to be fertilized, to start dividing, and, even more important, to begin the process of differentiation (into the specialized cells that become the different parts of the body), more than the donor’s set chromosomes is needed. Experimenting at Yale, Clement L. Markert concluded that there was something in the male sperm that promoted these processes, something besides the chromosomes; that “the sperm might also be contributing some unidentify spur that stimulates the development of the egg.”
In order to prevent the sperm’s male chromosomes from merging with the egg’s female chromosome (which would have resulted in a normal fertilization rather than in cloning), one set had to be removed surgically just before the merger began and the remaining set “excited” by physical or chemical means to double itself. If the sperm’s chromosomes were chosen for the latter role, the embryo might become either male or female; if the egg’s set were chosen and duplicated, the embryo could only be female. While Markert was continuing his experiments on such methods of nuclear transfer, two other scientists (Peter C . Hoppe and Karl Illmensee) announced in 1977 the successful birth, at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbour, Maine, of seven “single-parent mice.” The process, however, was more accurately designated parthenogenesis, “virgin birth,” than cloning; since what the experimenters did was to cause the chromosomes in the egg of a female mouse to double, keep the egg with the full set of chromosomes in certain solutions, and then, after the cell had divided several times, introduced the self-fertilized cell into the womb of a female mouse. Significantly, the recipient mouse had to be a different female, not the mouse whose egg had been used.
…One alternative, which substituted the “Should man play God?” outcry with what one might call the “Can science play husband?” idea, was the process that led to the phenomenon of “Test-tube babies.”
…Two processes, that of Embryo Transfer and In vitro Fertilization, were employed in an event that made medical history in July 1978, when Louise Brown was born at the Oldham and District General Hospital in Northwest England… she was conceived in a test tube, not by her parents but by techniques employed by Doctors Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. Nine months earlier they had used a device with a light at its end to suck out a mature egg from Mrs. Brown’s ovary. Bathed in a dish containing life-support nutrients, the extracted egg was “mixed”—the word was used by Dr. Edwards—with the husband’s sperm. Once a sperm succeeded in fertilizing the egg, the egg was transferred to a dish containing other nutrients, where it began to divide. After fifty hours it had reached an eight-celled division; at that point, the egg was re-implanted in Mrs. Brown’s womb. With care and special treatment, the embryo developed properly; a caesarean delivery completed the feat… “We have a girl and she’s perfect!” the gynecologist who performed the caesarian delivery shouted as he held up the baby.
“I have created, my hands have made it,” Ninti cried out as she delivered the Adam by caesarian section, an eon earlier…
Also reminiscent of the ancient reports of the long road of trial and error taken by Enki and Ninti was the fact that the baby Louise “breakthrough” about which the media went wild came after twelve years of trial and error… Undoubtedly unbeknown to the doctors and researchers was the fact that, in discovering also that the addition of blood serum to the mixture of nutrients and sperm was essential to success, they were following the very same procedures that Enki and Ninti had employed…
The most obvious difference between the test-tube baby variants and what the ancient texts describe is that in the former the natural process of procreation is emulated: human male sperm fertilize a human female egg that then develops in the womb. In the case of the creation of Adam, the genetic material of two different (even if not dissimilar) species were mixed to create a new being, positioned somewhere between the two “parents.”
In recent years modern science has made substantial advances in such genetic manipulation. With the aid of increasingly sophisticated equipment, computers, and ever-more minute instruments, scientists have been able to “read” the genetic code of living organisms, up to and including that of Man… Plans are now afoot to “map” the complete human genetic makeup (“Genome”)…
In spite of these complexities, it has become possible, with the aid of enzymes, to cut DNA strands at desired places, remove a “sentence” that makes up a gene, and even insert into the DNA a foreign gene; through these techniques an undesired trait (such as one that causes disease) can be removed or a desired one (such as a growth-hormone gene) added…
Hybrids such as a mule, which is the progeny of a donkey and a horse, can be born from the mating of the two because they have the similar chromosomes (hybrids, however, cannot procreate). A sheep and a goat though not too distant relatives, cannot naturally mate, however, because of their genetic kinship, experiments have brought them together to form (in 1983) a “geep,” a sheep with its woolly coat but with a goat’s horns… The feat was attained by “Cell-Fusion”…
…There is little doubt that the monsters of Greek mythology, including the famous Minotaur (half bull, half man) of Crete, were recollections of the tales transmitted to the Greeks by Berossus, the Babylonian priest, and that the sources were the Sumerian texts concerning the trial-and-error experiments of Enki and Ninti which produced all kinds of chimeras (mixed, or “mosaic” creatures).
The advances in genetics have provided biotechnology with other routes other than the predictable chimera route; it is evident that in doing so, modern science has followed the alternate (though more difficult) course of action undertaken by Enki and Ninti… Techniques have even progressed to the artificial manufacture of compounds that perfectly emulate specific functions of a given gene, mainly with a view to treating diseases.
In mammals, the altered fertilized female egg ultimately must be implanted in the womb of a surrogate mother—the function that was assigned, according to the Sumerian tales, to the “Birth-Goddesses.”
The use of the most natural medium—sperm—to carry genetic material into a female egg [in the lab] astounded the scientific community in its simplicity and made front-page news even in The New York Times…
Some have pointed out that the ability of sperm to take up foreign DNA was suggested by researchers as early as 1971… Little it is realized that the technique had been reported even earlier, in Sumerian texts describing the creation of the Adam by Enki and Ninti, who had mixed the Apewoman’s egg in a test tube with a sperm of a young Anunnaki in a solution also containing blood serum.
In 1987 the dean of anthropology at the University of Florence, Italy, raised a storm of protests by clergymen and humanists when he revealed that ongoing experiments could lead to the “creation to a new breed of slave, an anthropoid with a chimpanzee mother and a human father.” One of my fans sent me the clipping of the story with the comment “Well, Enki, here we go again!”