Chapter 4: The Messengers of Genesis

In 1986 Mankind was treated to a once-in-a-lifetime event: the appearance of a messenger from the past, a Messenger of Genesis. It’s name was Halley’s comet.

The chain of scientific developments that led Edmund Halley, who became British Astronomer Royal in 1720, to determine, during the years 1695-1705, that the comet he observed in 1682 and that came to bear his name was a periodic one, the same that had been observed in 1531 and 1607, involved the promulgation of the laws of gravitation and celestial motion by Sir Isaac Newton and Newton’s consulting with Halley about his findings. Until then the theory regarding comets was that they crossed the heavens in straight lines, appearing at one end of the skies and disappearing in the other direction, never to be seen again. But based on Newtonian laws, Halley concluded that the curve described by comets is elliptical, eventually bringing these celestial bodies back to where they had been observed before.

Especially because of a comet’s small size, its orbit is easily perturbed by the gravitational pool of the planets it passes (this is especially true of Jupiter’s effect). Each time a comet nears the Sun, its frozen material comes to life; the comet develops a head and a long tail and begins to lose some of its material as it turns to gas and vapor. All these phenomena affect the comet’s orbit… the actual orbit and its period must be recalculated each time the comet makes an appearance.

Most of the returning comets are short-period ones, the shortest known being that of Encke’s comet, which nears the Sun and then returns to a region slightly beyond the asteroid belt in a little over three years.

Mr. Sitchin names several other comets which are already known to astronomers, then he continues:

When Halley’s comet appeared on its next-to-last passage around the Sun, in 1910, its course and aspects had been well mapped out in advance. Still, the Great Comet of 1910, as it was then hailed, was awaited with great apprehension. There was fear that Earth or life on it would not survive the anticipated passage because Earth would be enveloped in the comet’s tail of poisonous gases… As the comet reached its greatest magnitude and brilliance in May 10 1910, its tail stretching over more than half the vault of heaven King Edward VII of Great Britain died. On the European continent, a series of political upheavals culminated in the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

Halley's Comet as seen in 1986.

Halley’s Comet as seen in 1986.

Pass of Halley's Comet through Pisces and Virgo Constellations in 1759.

Pass of Halley’s Comet through Pisces and Virgo Constellations in 1759.

Spacecraft Giotto sent this photograph from Munich's DFVLR Lab.

Spacecraft Giotto sent this photograph from Munich’s DFVLR Lab.

From the Bayeux Tapestry, a warning of a bad Omen to King Harold (1066).

From the Bayeux Tapestry, a warning of a bad Omen to King Harold (1066).

The year A.D. 66 is considered by astronomers one in which Halley’s comet made an appearance; they base their conclusions on at least two contemporary Chinese observations. That was the year in which the Jews of Judea launched their Great Revolt against Rome. The Jewish historian Josephus (Wars of the Jews, Book VI) blamed the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of its Holy Temple on the misinterpretation by the Jews of the heavenly signs that preceded the revolt: “a star resembling a sword which stood over the city, a comet that continued the whole year.”

Besides other sightings, Mr. Sitchin mentions the following:

In April 1985, F.R. Stephenson, K.K.C. Yau and H. Hunger reported in Nature that a reexamination of Babylonian astronomical tablets that had been lying in the basement of the British Museum since their discovery in Mesopotamia more than a century ago, shows that the tablets recorded the appearance of extraordinary celestial bodies—probably comets, they (modern scholars) said—in the years 164 B.C. and 87 B.C. The periodicity of seventy-seven years suggested to these scholars that the unusual celestial bodies were Halley’s comet.

The year 164 B.C.… it was the very year in which the Jews of Judea, under the leadership of the Maccabees, revolted against Greek-Syrian domination, recaptured Jerusalem, and purified the defiled Temple. The Temple rededication ceremony is celebrated to this day by Jews as the festival of Hanukkah (“Rededication”)… The unusual celestial object… is reported to have been seen in the Babylonian month of Kislimu, which is the Jewish month Kislev and, indeed, the one in which Hanukkah is celebrated.

In another instance, the comparison by Josephus of the comet to a celestial sword (as it seems to be depicted also in the Bayeux tapestry) has led some scholars to suggest that the Angel of the Lord that King David saw “standing between the earth and heaven, having a sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem” (I Chronicles 21:16) might have been in reality Halley’s comet, sent by the Lord to punish the king for having conducted a prohibited census. The time of this incident, circa 1000 B.C., coincides with one of the years in which Halley’s comet should have appeared.

In an article published in 1986, I pointed out that the Hebrew name for “comet” is Kokhav shavit, a “Scepter star.” … When the Israelites ended their wanderings in the desert after the Exodus and began the conquest of Canaan, the Moabite king summoned Bilam (the seer) to curse the Israelites. But Bilam realizing that the Israelite advance was divinely ordained, blessed them instead. He did so, he explained (Numbers 24:17), because he was shown a celestial vision:

I see it, though not now;
I behold it, though it is not near;
A star of Jacob did course
A scepter of Israel did arise.


If, in biblical times, the comet we call Halley’s was considered the Scepter Star of Israel, it could explain why the Jewish revolts of 164 B.C. and A.D. 66 were timed to coincide with the comet’s appearances.

How far back does this messenger of the past go? According to the Sumerian creation epics, it goes all the way back to the time of the Celestial Battle. Halley’s comet and its like are truly the Messengers of Genesis.

The planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as did the original nebula; so do their satellites, or moons; so should also the debris that either did not coalesce or that resulted from the disintegration of bodies such as comets and asteroids. Everything must keep going anticlockwise. Everything must also remain within the plane of the original disk, which is called the Ecliptic.

Nibiru/Marduk did not conform to all that. Its orbit, as previously reviewed, was retrograde—in the opposite direction, clockwise…

Where do comets come from, and what causes their odd orbits, of which the retrograde direction is the oddest in astronomer’s eyes?

After presenting several theories, especially that of the “Oort Cloud” (Jan Oort) who sums up his study:

The existence of the huge cloud of comets finds a natural explanation if comets (and meteorites) are considered as minor planets escaped, at an early stage of the planetary system, from the ring of asteroids.

Mr. Sitchin continues:

It all begins to sound like the Enuma elish

A major and outspoken study on the subject was made public in 1978 by Thomas C. Van Flandern of the U.S. naval Observatory, Washington, D.C. (Icarus, 36)… “Summarizing his findings, Van Flandern said thus in 1978: “The principal conclusion of this paper is that the comets originated in a breakup event in the inner solar system. In all probability it was the same event which gave rise to the asteroid belt and which produced most of the meteors visible today.”

He said that it was less certain that the same “breakup event” may have also given birth to the satellites of Mars and the outer satellites of Jupiter, and he estimated that the “breakup event” occurred five million years ago. He has no doubt, however, that the “breakup event” took place “in the asteroid belt.” Physical, chemical, and dynamic properties of the resulting celestial bodies, he stated emphatically, indicate “that a large planet did disintegrate” where the asteroid belt is today.

“The most frequently asked question about this scenario” Van Flandern wrote, “is ‘how can a planet blow up?’ … There is presently,” he conceded, “no satisfactory answer to this question.”

No satisfactory answer, that is, except the Sumerian one: the tale of Tiamat and Nibiru/Marduk, the Celestial Battle, the breakup of half of Tiamat, the annihilation of its moons (except for “Kingu”), and the forcing of their remains into a retrograde orbit…

Many more theories by various scholars follow at this point, regarding the mass of the supposed destroyed planet, after which Mr. Sitchin adds:

By the acknowledgment of the existence of Nibiru and his periodic return to the Place of the Battle, the puzzle of the “missing matter” finds a solution. It also addresses the theories that place the accretions of mass by Jupiter at a relative recent time (millions, not billions, of years ago). Depending on where Jupiter was at the times of Nibiru’s perihelion, the accretion might have occurred during various passages of Nibiru and not necessarily as a one-and-only event at the time of the catastrophic breakup of Tiamat. Indeed, spectrographic studies of asteroids reveal that some of them “were heated within the first few hundred million years after the origin of the solar system” by heat so intense as to melt them; “iron sank to their centers, forming strong stony-iron cores, while basaltic lavas floated to their surface, producing minor planets like Vesta” (Mc Graw-Hill Encyclopedia of Astronomy). The suggested time of the catastrophe is the very time indicated in The 12th Planet—some 500 million years after the formation of the Solar System.

Recent scientific advances in astronomy and astrophysics go beyond corroborating the Sumerian cosmogony in regard to the celestial collision as the common origin of the comets and the asteroids, the site of that collision (where the remains of the asteroid belt still orbit) or even the time of the catastrophic event (about 4 billion years ago). They also corroborate the ancient texts in the vital matter of water.

Tiamat was described as a “watery monster,” and the Mesopotamian texts speak of the handling of her waters by Nibiru/Marduk:

Half of her he stretched as a ceiling to the Sky,
As a bar at the Place of Crossing he posted it to guard;
Not to allow her waters to escape was its command.


The concept of an asteroid belt not only as a divider between the waters of the planet above and below it but also as a “guardian” of Tiamat’s own waters is echoed in the biblical verses of Genesis, where the explanation is given that the “Hammered-out bracelet” was also called Shama’im, the place “where the waters were.”

An example is found in Psalm 104, which depicts the Creator as the Lord

Who has stretched out the Shama’im as a curtain,
Who in the waters for his ascents put a ceiling.


These verses are almost a word-for-word copy of the verses in Enuma elish; in both instances, the placing of the asteroid belt “where the waters were.”

If the asteroids and comets are those remains, should not they also contain water?

What would have been a preposterous suggestion when these objects were deemed “chunks of debris” and “flying sand-banks” has turned out, as the result of recent discoveries, to be not so preposterous: the asteroids are celestial objects in which water—yes, water—is a major component.

Mr. Sitchin mentions the asteroid Ceres, first to be discovered, and the celestial body designated 2060 Chiron in which both of them traces of water were found. Mr. Sitchin then continues:

Comet Kohoutek (1974) was studied not only from Earth but also with rockets, from orbiting manned spacecraft (Skylab) and from the Mariner 10 spacecraft that was on its way to Venus and Mercury… The water finding, as well as that of two complex molecules in the comet’s tail, are the most significant to date,” stated Stephen P. Moran, who directed the scientific project for NASA… Subsequent cometary observations confirmed these findings.

Comet Kohoutek

Comet Kohoutek



Mr. Sitchin returns to mentioning comet Halley and several studies. He ends with the following:

And in December 1986, scientists at the John Hopkins University announced that evaluation of data collected in March 1986 by the small Earth-orbiting satellite IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) revealed an explosion on Halley’s Comet that blew 100 cubic feet of ice out of the comet’s nucleus.

There was water everywhere on these Messengers of Genesis!

In the discoveries concerning the comets and the asteroids, something else came to life: the ancient knowledge of Sumer.

Continue to Chapter 5: GAIA: The Cleaved Planet