Chapter 3: In the Beginning

In the beginning
God created the heaven and the earth.
And the earth was without form and void
and darkness was upon the face of the deep
And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
And God said, Let there be light; and there was light.


For generations this majestic outline of the manner in which our world was created has been at the core of Judaism as well of Christianity and the third monotheistic religion Islam, the latter two being outgrowths of the first. In the seventeenth century Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh in Ireland calculated from these opening verses of Genesis the precise day and even the moment of the world’s creation, in the year 4004 B.C. Many old editions of the Bible still carry Ussher’s chronology printed in the margins; many still believe that Earth and the Solar System of which it is a part are indeed no older than that. Unfortunately, this belief, known as Creationism, has taken on science as its adversary; and science, firmly wed to the Theory of Evolution, has met the challenge and joined the battle.

It is regrettable that both sides pay little heed to what has been known for more than a century—that the creation tales of Genesis are edited and abbreviated versions of much more detailed Mesopotamian texts, which were in turn versions of an original Sumerian text. The battle lines between the Creationists and Evolutionists—a totally unwarranted demarcation as the evidence herewith presented will show—are undoubtedly more sharply etched by the principle of the separation between religion and state that is embodied in the U.S. Constitution. But such a separation is not the norm among the Earth’s nations (even in enlightened democracies such as England), nor was it the norm in antiquity, when the biblical verses were written down.

Indeed, in ancient times the king was also the high priest, the state had a national god, the temples were the seat of scientific knowledge, and the priests were the servants. This was so because when civilization began, the gods who were worshipped—the focus of the act of being “religious”—were none other than the Anunnaki/Nefilim, who were the source of all manner of knowledge, alias science on Earth.

The merging of state, religion, and science was nowhere more complete than in Babylon. There the original Sumerian Epic of Creation was translated and revised so that Marduk, the Babylonian national god, was assigned a celestial counterpart… Nibiru/Marduk…

The decipherment of the writing on the clay tablets discovered in the ruins of ancient Mesopotamia more than a century ago led to the realization that texts existed that related biblical creation tales millennia before the Old Testament was compiled.

Is the biblical text of creation a religious document, its contents to be considered only a matter of faith to be believed or disbelieved; or it is a scientific document, imparting to us essential knowledge of how things began, in the heavens and on the Earth? This, of course, is the core of the ongoing argument between Creationists and Evolutionists. The two camps would have laid down their arms long ago were they to realize that what the editors and compilers of the Book of Genesis had done was no different from what the Babylonians had done: using the only scientific source of their time, those descendants of Abraham—scion of a royal-priestly family from the Sumerian capital Ur—also took the Epic of Creation, shortened and edited it, and made it the foundation of a national religion glorifying Yahweh “who is in the Heavens and on Earth.”

In Babylon, Marduk was a dual deity. Physically present… he was worshipped as Ilu (translated “god” but literally meaning “the Lofty One”)… On the other hand, “Marduk” was a celestial deity, a planetary god, who in the heavens assumed the attributes, role, and credit for the primordial creations that the Sumerians had attributed to Nibiru, the planet whose most frequent symbolic depiction was that of a winged disk. The Assyrians, replacing Marduk with their national god Ashur, combined the two aspects and depicted Ashur as a god within the winged disc.

The Hebrew followed suit, preaching monotheism and recognizing—based on Sumerian scientific knowledge—the universality of God, ingeniously solved the problem of duality and of the multitude of the Anunnaki deities involved in the events on Earth by concocting a singular-but-plural deity, not an El (the Hebrew equivalent of Ilu) but Elohim—a creator who is plural (literally “Gods”) and yet One… The Hebrew were aware that the deity who could speak to Abraham and Moses and the celestial Lord whom the Sumerians called Nibiru were not one and the same scientifically, although all were part of a universal, everlasting, and omnipresent God—Elohim—in whose grand design for the universe the path for each planet is its predetermined “destiny,” and what the Anunnaki had done on Earth was likewise a predetermined mission. Thus was the handiwork of a universal God manifest in Heaven and on Earth.

But to recognize this—that Genesis represents not just religion but also science—one must recognize the role of the Anunnaki and accept that the Sumerian texts are not “myth” but factual reports… only by explaining, as I have repeatedly done in my writings, that the information on how things began—including how Man himself was created—indeed did not come from the memory of the Assyrians or Babylonians or Sumerians but from the knowledge and science of the Anunnaki/Nefilim. They too, of course could not “remember” how the Solar System was created or how Nibiru/Marduk invaded the Solar System, because they themselves were not created on their planet. But just as our scientists have a good notion of how the Solar System came about and even how the whole universe came into being (the favorite theory is that of the Big Bang), the Anunnaki/Nefilim, capable of space travel 450,000 years ago, surely had the capacity to arrive at sensible scenarios of creation; much more so since their planet, acting as a spacecraft that sailed past all the outer planets, gave them a chance at repeated close looks that were undoubtedly more extensive than our Voyager “peeks.”

With the immensity of space as its canvas, here is how the Mesopotamian version began to draw the primordial picture:

When in the heights Heaven had not been named
And below earth had not been called,
Naught but primordial Apsu, their Begetter,
Mummu, and Tiamat, she who bore them all,
Their waters were mingled together.
No reed had yet been formed,
No marshland had appeared.


Even in the traditional King James version, the biblical opening is more matter-of-fact, not an inspirational religious opus but a lesson in primordial science…

With this understanding, the reference in the Mesopotamian version to the mingling “waters” of Tiamat ceases to be allegorical and calls for a factual evaluation. It goes to the question of plentiful waters of Earth and the biblical assertion (correct, as we soon will realize) that when the Earth was formed it was completely covered by water. If water was so abundant even at the moment of Earth’s creation, then only if Tiamat was also a watery planet could the half that became Earth be water!

The watery nature of Tehom/Tiamat is mentioned in various biblical references.

What was the “wind” of the Lord that “moved upon the face of the waters” of Tehom/Tiamat? Not the divine “Spirit” but the satellite of Nibiru/Marduk that, in the Mesopotamian texts, was called by that term! Those texts vividly described the flashing and lightning strokes that burst off Nibiru/Marduk as it closed in on Tiamat. Applying this knowledge to the biblical text, its correct reading emerges:

When, in the beginning,
The Lord created the Heaven and the Earth,
The Earth, not yet formed, was in the void,
and there was darkness upon Tiamat.
Then the Wind of the Lord swept upon its waters
and the Lord commanded, “Let there be lightning!”
and there was a bright light.


The continuing narrative of Genesis does not describe the ensuing splitting of Tiamat or the break up of her host of satellites…

Genesis picks up the primordial tale here and describes the forming of the asteroid belt thus:

And Elohim said:
Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters
and let it divide the waters from the waters.
And Elohim made the Firmament,
dividing the waters which are under the Firmament
from the waters which are above the Firmament.
And Elohim called the Firmament “Heaven.”


What separated the “upper waters” from the “lower waters,” the Genesis text stresses, was the Raki’a; generally translated “Firmament,” it literally means “Hammered-out Bracelet.” Then Genesis goes on to explain that Elohim called the Raki’a, the so called Firmament, Shama’im, “the Heaven”—a name that in its first use in the Bible consists of the two words Sham and ma’im, meaning literally “where the waters were.” In the creation tale of Genesis, “the Heaven” was a specific celestial location, where Tiamat and her waters had been, where the asteroid belt was hammered out.

That happened, according to the Mesopotamian texts, when Nibiru/Marduk returned to the Place of Crossing—the second phase of the battle with Tiamat: “Day Two,” if you wish, as the biblical narrative does.

Mr. Sitchin at this point explains also how the various planets and Nibiru/Marduk itself “begat” their satellites, moons or moonlets, as the “invader” was interacting with the planets in its orbit. Then he continues:

…It has taken modern astronomy almost two centuries to find out what the Sumerians knew 6,000 years ago.

Even with this knowledge, the biblical statement that the “Hammered-out Bracelet,” the Shama’im—alias “the Heaven,” divided the “waters which are below the Firmament” from the “waters which are above the Firmament” remained a puzzle. What, in god’s name, was the Bible talking about?

We know—don’t we?—that the asteroid belt had, indeed, as the ancient text reported, divided the planets into two groups. “Below” it are the Terrestrial, or inner Planets; “above” it the gaseous, or Outer Planets. But except for Earth the former had barren surfaces and the latter no surfaces at all, and the long-held wisdom was that neither group (again, excepting Earth) had any water.

Well, as result of the missions of unmanned spacecraft to all the other planets except Pluto, we now know better. Mercury… is too small and too close to the Sun to have retained water, if it ever had any.

But Venus… the careful analysis of the results of unmanned probes led the scientists to answer emphatically, yes. The topographic features revealed by radar mapping suggested erstwhile oceans and seas. That such bodies of water might indeed existed on Venus was indicated by the findings that the “hell-like atmosphere,” as some of the scientists termed it, contained traces of water vapor.

“The lost oceans of Venus” can be traced in its rocks; that was the conclusion of a joint report of U.S. and Soviet scientists published in the May 1986 issue of Science. There was indeed water “below the Firmament,” not only on Earth but also on Venus.

Mars, Viking Orbiter Mission.

Mars, Viking Orbiter Mission.

The latest scientific discoveries have added Mars to the list of inner planets whose waters corroborate the ancient statement.

The final NASA report after Viking missions (Mars: the Viking Discoveries) concluded that “Mars once had enough water to form a layer several meters deep over the whole surface of the planet.” This was possible, it is now believed, because Mars (like Earth) wobbles slightly as it spins about its axis. This action results in significant climatic changes every 50,000 years…

What had started out as a dry and barren planet has emerged, in the past decade, as a planet where water was once abundant—not just passively lying about but flowing and gushing and shaping the planet’s features. Mars has joined Venus and Earth in corroborating the concept of the Sumerian texts of water “below the Firmament,” on the inner planets.

The ancient assertion that the asteroid belt separated the waters that are below the Firmament from those that were above it implies that there was water on the celestial bodies that are located farther out.

Saturn itself, a gaseous giant… has not yet been penetrated down to its surface… But its various moons as well as its breathtaking rings, are now known to be made, if not wholly then in large part, of water ice and perhaps even liquid water.

…What was originally described as “a carousel of bright icy particles” was revealed, however, by the data from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in 1980 and 1981 to consist of chunks of ice ranging from boulder size to that of “big houses.” We are seeing “a sea of sparkling ice,” JPL’s scientists said. The ice, at some primordial time, had been liquid water.

Pioneer 11 reported in 1979 that the group of inner moons of Saturn… appeared to be “icy bodies… consisting largely of ice.”

Voyager 1 also revealed that Saturn’s outer moons were ice covered…

Saturn - From the Voyager Probes.

Saturn – From the Voyager Probes.

A fantasy: Saturn and its rings.

A fantasy: Saturn and its rings.

Jupiter was investigated by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 and by the two Voyagers… somewhere farther down inside the thick atmosphere there is liquid water, the scientists have concluded. …The moons of Jupiter proved more fascinating, revealing, and surprising than the planet itself… Io, the closest to Jupiter, revealed totally unexpected volcanic activity… The consensus is that Io has “some internal sources of water.” …Europa, like Io, appears to be a rocky body, but its somewhat lower density suggests that it may contain more internal water than Io. …Ganimede, the largest of Jupiter’s moons, appears to be covered with water ice mixed with rock, suggesting it has undergone moonquakes that have cracked its crust of frozen ice… The fourth Galilean moon, Callisto… also has an ice-rich crust; under it there are mush and liquid water surrounding a small, rocky core. Estimates are that Callisto is more than 50 percent water.

Modern science has confirmed the ancient assertion to the fullest: there indeed have been “waters above the Firmament.”

“Jupiter is the Solar System’s largest planet—as large as 1,300 Earths. It contains some 90 percent of the mass of the complete planetary system of the Sun. As stated earlier, the Sumerians called it KI.SHAR, “Foremost of the Firm Lands,” of the planetary bodies. Saturn, though smaller than Jupiter, occupies a much larger portion of the heavens because of its rings, whose “disk” has a diameter of 670,000 miles. The Sumerians called it AN.SHAR, “Foremost of the Heavens.”

Evidently they knew what they were talking about.

Jupiter and its moons

Jupiter and its moons

Continue to Chapter 4: The Messengers of Genesis