Chapter 11: A Space Base on Mars

Vowing to make the United States “a spacefaring nation,” the goal, the President said, will be “back to the Moon, back to the future . . . and then, a journey into tomorrow, to another planet: a manned mission to Mars.”

“Back to the future.” The choice of words may or may not have been coincidental; the promise that going to the future involves going to the past might have been more than a speech writer’s choice slogan.

For there is evidence that “A Space Base on Mars,” this chapter’s heading, should apply not to the discussion of future plans but to disclosure of what has already taken place in the past: Evidence that a space base existed on the planet Mars in antiquity; and what is even more startling, that it might have been reactivated before our very eyes.

A spaceship capable of carrying a team of astronauts to Mars and back might have to weigh as much as four million pounds… (U.S. space shuttles now have a payload capacity of sixty-five thousand pounds.) Such lift-off and fuel problems would be greatly reduced if the spaceship will be assembled in weightless orbit around the Earth. This scenario envisions an orbiting, manned space station, to which shuttle craft will ferry the knocked-down spaceship. Meanwhile, astronauts stationed on the Moon at a permanent space base would develop the technology required for Man’s survival in space. Man and vehicle would then be joined for the voyage to Mars. The round trip may take between two and three years depending on the trajectory and Earth-Mars alignments…

The progression from shuttlecraft to an orbiting space station to landings on the Moon and the establishment of a space base thereon, all as stepping-stones or way stations toward a landing on Mars, has been described in scenarios that read like science fiction but are based on scientific knowledge and attainable technology. Based on the Moon and on Mars, even a colony on Mars, have been in the planning for a long time and are deemed entirely feasible. Sustaining human life and activity on the Moon is certainly challenging, but the studies show how it could be achieved. The tasks are even more challenging for Mars, since re-supply from Earth (as the Moon projects envision) is more difficult and costly. Nevertheless, the vital resources needed by Man to survive and function are available on Mars, and scientists believe that Man could live “off the land” there.

Mars, it has been concluded, is habitable—because it was habitable in the past.

Mars appears nowadays as a cold, half-frozen planet inhospitable to anything living upon its surface… But not so long ago in geological terms, it was a planet with relative pleasant seasons, flowing water, oceans and rivers, cloudy (blue!) skies, and perhaps—just perhaps—even some forms of indigenous simple plant life.

All the various studies converge towards the conclusion that Mars is now going through an ice age, not unlike the ice ages that Earth has experienced periodically…

Mr. Sitchin explains the orbital anomalies of Planet Earth and how it is affected in its seasons and cycles of ice and warmth. He then continues:

The planet Mars is also subject to all these cycles, except that its larger orbit around the Sun and greater tilt differential cause more extreme climatic swings. The cycle as we have mentioned, is believed to last some fifty thousand years on Mars (shorter and longer durations have also been suggested).

When the next Martian warm period, or interglacial, arrives, the planet will literally flow with water, its seasons will not be as harsh, and its atmosphere will not be as alien to Earthlings as it is today. When was the last “interglacial” epoch on Mars? The time could not have been too distant, because otherwise the dust storms on Mars would have obliterated more, if not most, of the evidence on its surface of once-flowing rivers, ocean shorelines, and lake basins; and there would not be as much water vapor still in the Martian atmosphere as is found today…

Those who are planning the landings and extended stays on Mars do not expect the climate there to revert to an interglacial epoch within the next two decades; but they do believe that the basic requirements for life and survival on Mars are locally available… Aquifers—subterranean water pools—are a sure source of water in the opinion of many scientists… Morning fogs and mists that have been observed on Mars suggest to scientists the existence of dew, a source of water for many plants and animals on Earth in arid areas.

The Martian atmosphere, at first site inhospitable and even poisonous to Man and life, could in fact be a source of vital resources. The atmosphere has been found to contain some water vapor, which could be extracted by condensation. It could also be a source of oxygen for breathing and burning… The planet’s reddish-brown, or “rusty,” hue is also a clue to the availability of oxygen, for it is the result of the actual rusting of iron rocks on Mars…

Although the Martian soil is relatively high in salts, scientists believe it could be washed with water sufficiently to the point where patches would be suitable for plant cultivation in green-houses; local foods could thus be grown, especially from seeds of salt-resistant strains of grains and vegetables; human waste could be used as fertilizer, as it is used in many Third World countries on Earth…

Another source not just of water but also of heat on Mars, is indicated by the past volcanic activity there. Of several notable volcanoes… the largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa in Hawaii, rises 6.3 miles; Olympus Mons on Mars towers 15 miles above the surrounding plain… The volcanoes of Mars and other evidence of volcanic activity on the planet indicate a hot molten core and thus the possible existence of warm surface spots, hot-water springs, and other phenomena resulting from internally generated heat.

With a day almost exactly the length of a day on Earth, seasons (although about twice as long as Earth’s), equatorial regions, icy northern and southern poles, water resources that once were seas and lakes and rivers, mountain ranges and plains, volcanoes and canyons, Mars is Earthlike in so many ways. Indeed, some scientists believe that Mars, although created at the same time as the other planets 4.6 billion years ago, is at the stage Earth was at its beginnings, before plant life began to emit oxygen and change Earth’s atmosphere. This notion has served as a basis for the suggestion by proponents of the Gaia Theory of how Man might “jump the gun” on Martian evolution by bringing life to it; for they hold that it was Life that made Earth hospitable to life.

The plans proposed by the advocates of Gaia Hypothesis are based on an assumption and a presumption. The first, that Mars does not have life-forms of its own; the second, that people from one planet have the right to introduce their life-forms to another world, whether or not it has its own life… it is evident that Life as it has blossomed on Earth—trees and forests, bushes and grasses, flying birds and roaming animals—is just not there. But what about lesser life-forms lichens or algae or the lowly bacteria?

Mars probes, Mariners 4, 6, and 7 (1965-69) revealed a desolated planet… This image, of a planet not only without life on it but itself a lifeless and dead globe changed completely when Mariner 9 went into orbit around Mars in 1971 and surveyed almost its entire surface. It showed a living planet with a history of geologic activity and volcanism, with plains and mountains, with canyons in which America’s Grand Canyon could be swallowed without a trace, and the marks of flowing water. It was not only a living planet but one that could have life upon it.

The search for life on Mars was thus made a prime objective of the Viking Missions. Viking 1 and Viking 2 were launched from Cape Canaveral in the summer 1975 and reached their destination in July and August of 1976… the landers sent thrilling photographs of the Martian landscape at very close range and conducted a series of experiments in search of Life.

Besides instruments to analyze the atmosphere and cameras to photograph the areas in which they touched down, each Lander carried a combined gas-chromatograph/mass-spectrometer for analyzing the surface for organic material as well as three instruments designed to detect metabolic activity by any organism in the soil… There were no living organisms in the samples; only carbon dioxide and a small amount of water vapor were found. There were not even the organic molecules that impacting meteorites bring with them; the presumption is that if such molecules had been delivered to Mars, the present high level of ultraviolet light that strikes the planet, whose protective atmosphere is now almost gone, must have destroyed them.

In subsequent years, in laboratory experiments in which the soil and conditions of Mars were simulated as best as the researchers could, the reactions indicated biological responses… [Moscow University 1980]: when Earth life-forms were introduced, birds and mammals expired in a few seconds, turtles and frogs lived many hours, insects survived for weeks—but fungi, lichens, algae, and mosses quickly adapted themselves to the new environment; oats, rye, and beans sprouted and grew but could not reproduce.

Life, then, could take hold on Mars, but had it? With 4.6 billion years at the disposal of evolution on Mars, where are not merely some microorganisms (which may or may not exist) but higher life-forms? Or were the Sumerians right in saying that life sprouted on Earth so soon after its formation only because the “Seed of Life” was brought to it, by Nibiru?

While the soil of Mars still keeps its riddle of whether or not its test reactions were chemical and lifeless or biological and caused by living organism, the rocks of Mars challenge us with even more enigmatic puzzles.

The rocks discovered in Antarctica are even more puzzling. A photograph of one of them, released by NASA and published in The New York Times of September 1, 1987, shows it to be not “football sized” as these rocks had been described, but rather a broken-off block of four bricklike, artificially shaped and angled stones fitted together—something one would expect to find in pre-Inca ruins in Peru’s Sacred Valley but not on Mars. Yet all tests on the rock (it is no longer referred to as a meteorite) attest to its Martian origin.

To compound the mystery, photographs of the Martian surface have revealed features that, on seeing them, astronomers dubbed “Inca City.” Located in the planet’s southern part, they represent a series of steep walls made up of squarish or rectangular segments. John McCauley, a NASA geologist commented that the “ridges” were “continuous, show no breaching, and stand out among the surrounding plains and small hills like walls of an ancient ruin.”

This immense wall or series of connected shaped stone blocks bears a striking resemblance to such colossal and enigmatic structures on Earth as the immense wall of gigantic stone blocks that forms the base of the vast platform at Baalbek in Lebanon or to the cruder but equally impressive zigzagging parallel stone walls at Sacsahuaman above Cuzco in Peru. In The Stairway to Heaven and The Lost Realms, I have attributed both structures to the Anunnaki/Nefilim. The features on Mars might perhaps be explained as natural phenomena, and the size of the blocks, ranging from three to five miles in length, might very well indicate the hand of nature rather than of people, of whatever provenance. On the other hand, since no plausible natural explanation has emerged, they might be the remains of artificial structures—if the ‘giants” of Near Eastern and Andean lore had also visited Mars . . .

The notion of “canals” on Mars appeared to have been laid to rest when—after decades of ridicule—scientists suggested that what Schiaparelli and Lowell had observed and mapped were in fact channels of dried-up rivers. Yet other features were found on the Martian surface that defy easy explanation. These include white “streaks” that run in straight lines for endless miles—sometimes parallel, sometimes at angles to each other, sometimes crossing other, narrower “tracks.” Once again, the NASA teams suggested that windblown dust storms may have caused these features. This may be so, although the regularity and especially the intersecting of the lines seem to indicate an artificial origin. Searching for a comparable feature on Earth, one must look to the famous Nazca lines in southern Peru which have been attributed to “the gods.”

As pictures taken by the Mariner and Viking cameras seem to show, even pyramids, or what look like pyramids, have been seen on Mars.

Mr. Sitchin presents several photos of Mars, its “pyramids, Face,” and other features, and opinions of various experts. He continues:

Although it is said that the NASA scientist who examined the photographs [of the Face] received from the Viking 1 Orbiter on July 25, 1976, “almost fell out of his chair” when he saw this frame and that appropriate “Oh, my god” or expressions to that effect were uttered, the fact is that the photo was filed away with the thousands of other Viking photographs without any further action because the similarity to a human face was deemed just a play of light and shadows on a rock eroded by natural forces (water, wind)…

Three years later Vincent DiPietro, an electrical engineer and imaging specialist, who remembered seeing the “Face” in a popular magazine came face-to-face with the Martian image as he was thumbing through the archives of the National Space Science Data Center… Intrigued by the decision to keep the photo in the scientific data center under that tantalizing caption—the “Head” whose very existence had been denied—he embarked, together with Greg Molenaar, a Lockheed computer scientist, on search for the original NASA image. They found not one, but two, the other being image 070-A-13(Plate F). Subsequent searchers came up with more photos of the Cydonia area taken by different Viking Orbiter cameras and from both the right and left sides of the features (there are eleven by now). The Face as well as more pyramid-like and other puzzling features could be seen on all of them. Using sophisticated computer enhancements and imaging techniques, DiPietro and Molinaar obtained enlarged and clearer images of the Face that convinced them it had been artificially sculpted.

Armed with their findings (DiPietro and Molenaar), they attended the 1981 The Case for Mars conference but instead of acclaiming them the assembled scientists cold-shouldered their assertions—undoubtedly because they would have to draw the conclusion that the Face was the handiwork of intelligent beings, “Martians” who had inhabited the planet; and that was a totally unacceptable proposition… All they claimed [their book Unusual Mars Surface Features’ epilogue stated], was “that the features do not seem natural and warrant further investigation.” NASA scientists, however, strongly rejected any suggestion that future missions should include a visit to the Face, since it was clearly just a rock shaped by the forces of nature so that it resembled a human face.

The cause of the Face on Mars was thereafter taken up primarily by Richard C. Hoagland, a science writer and one time consultant at the Goddard Space Flight Center. He organized a computer conference titled the Independent Mars Investigation Team with the purpose of having the features and all other pertinent data studied by a representative group of scientists and specialists; the group eventually included Brian O’Leary, a scientist-astronaut, and David Webb, a member of the U.S. President’s Space Commission. In their conclusions they not only concurred with the view that the “Face” and “pyramids” were artificial structures, they also suggested that other features on the surface on Mars were the handiwork of intelligent beings who had once been on Mars.

I was especially intrigued by the suggestion in their reports that the orientation of the Face and the principal pyramid indicated they were built about half a million years ago in alignment with sunrise at solstice time on Mars. When Hoagland and his colleague Thomas Rautenberg, a computer specialist, sought my comments on their photographic evidence, I pointed out to them that the Anunnaki/Nefilim, according to my conclusions in The 12th Planet, had first landed on Earth about 450,000 years ago; it was, perhaps, no coincidence that Hoagland and Rautenberg’s dating of the monuments on Mars coincided with my timetable. Although Hoagland was careful to hedge his bets, he devoted many pages in his book The Monuments of Mars to my writings and to the Sumerian evidence concerning the Anunnaki.

The publicity according the findings of DiPietro, Molenaar, and Hoagland has caused NASA to insist that they are wrong. In an unusual move, the National Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, which supplies the public with copies of NASA data, has been enclosing along with the “Face” photographs copies of rebuttals on the unorthodox interpretations of the images. These rebuttals include a three-page paper dated June 6, 1987, by Paul Butterworth, the Center’s Resident Planetologist. He states that “there is no reason to believe that this particular mountain, which is similar to tens of thousands of others on the planet, is not the result of the natural geological processes which have produced all the other landforms on Mars…

“No reason to believe” that the feature is other than natural is, of course, not a factual argument in disproving the opposite position, whose proponents contend that they do have reason to believe the features are artificial structures… the Face and some features near it, especially those with straight sides, remain a challenging enigma.

A scientifically significant study by Mark J. Carlotto, an optics scientist, was published in the May 1988 issue of the prestigious journal Applied Optics… and Carlotto’s conclusions were that the “Face” was indeed a bisymmetrical human face, with another eye socket in the shaded part and a “fine structure of the mouth suggesting teeth.” These, Carlotto stated, “were facial features and not a transient phenomenon” or a trick of light and shadow…

Applied Optics deemed the study important enough to make it its front-cover feature, and the scientific journal New Scientist devoted a special report to the published paper and to an interview with the author. The journal echoed his suggestion that “at the very least these enigmatic objects”—the Face and the adjoining pyramidal features that some had dubbed “The City”—”deserve further scrutiny by future Mars probes, such as the 1988 Soviet Phobos mission or the U.S. Mars Observer.”

The fact that the controlled Soviet press has published and republished articles by Vladimir Avinsky, a noted researcher in geology and mineralogy, that support the non-natural origin of the monuments, surely indicates the Soviet aerospace attitudes on the matter—a subject that will be dealt with at greater length later on.

Avinsky suggests: one must bear in mind that due to the low gravity on Mars a man could perform gigantic tasks on it, and he attaches great importance to the dark circle that is clearly seen in the flat area between the Face and the Pyramids. While NASA scientists dismiss it as “a water spot on the lens of the Viking Orbiter,” Avinsky considers it “the centre of the entire composition” of the “Martian complex” and its layout.

Unless it is assumed that Earthlings possessed, tens of thousands or even half a million years ago, a high civilization and a sophisticated technology that enabled them to engage in space travel, arrive on Mars and, among other things, put up monuments on it, including the Face, only two other alternatives logically remain. The first is that intelligent beings had evolved on Mars who not only could engage in megalithic construction but also happened to look like us. But in the absence even of microorganisms in the soil of Mars, nor evidence of plant and animal life that among other things could provide the humanlike Martians with nourishment, the rise of a Martian population akin to Earthlings and one that even duplicated the structure forms found on Earth seems highly improbable.

The only remaining plausible alternative is that someone, neither from Earth nor from Mars, capable of space travel half a million years ago, had visited this part of the Solar System and had stayed; and then left behind monuments, both on Earth and on Mars. The only beings for which evidence has been found—in the Sumerian and biblical texts and in all the ancient “mythologies”—are the Anunnaki from Nibiru…

The Giza Sphinx was so oriented that its gaze was aligned precisely eastward along the thirtieth parallel toward the spaceport of the Anunnaki in the Sinai peninsula…

The reference to the message-transmitting role of the “Fair of Face”—the sphinx at Giza—raises the question of what the purpose of the Face on Mars was… was the purpose, as the Egyptian text suggests, to send the “message from Heaven” to the sphinx on Earth, a “command” according to which the gods acted, sent from one Face to another Fair-of-Face?

If such was the purpose of the Face on Mars, then one would indeed expect to find pyramids nearby, as one finds at Giza… Interestingly, Dr. Avinsky discerns three true pyramids in the area adjoining the Face on Mars. As the ample evidence presented in the volumes of “The Earth Chronicles” series indicates, the Giza pyramids were not the handiwork of Pharaohs but were constructed by the Anunnaki…

Mr. Sitchin explains at this point the reasons of the Anunnaki for their facilities in the Sinai peninsula, their main aim was to transport the gold mined from southern Africa to Nibiru. The Anunnaki also went to the mountains and plains of South America to exploit the various minerals there, constructing monumental features for the purpose. He then continues:

Of the unusual features the orbiting cameras captured on the Face of Mars, two appear to me to be almost certainly artificial—and both seem to emulate structures found on the shore of Lake Titicaca in the Andes.

The two features, which cannot be explained away as the result of the play of light and shadow, thus bear similarities to the facilities and structures on the shores on Lake Titicaca. In this they not only support my suggestion that they are the remains of structures put up by the same visitors—the Anunnaki—they also offer a hypothesis for explaining their purpose and possible function. This conclusion is further supported by features that can be seen in the Utopia area: a pentagonal structure (enhanced NASA frame 086-A-07) and a “runway” next to what some deem evidence of mining (NASA frame 086-A-08).

Mr. Sitchin presents a good number of pictures and sketches in his book, with its corresponding hypothesis.

It has been pointed out that if an alien spacecraft were to search for signs of life on Earth in areas of the Earth’s surface outside the cities, what would give the presence of intelligent beings on Earth would be the tracks we call “roads” and the rectilinear patterns of agricultural lands. NASA itself has supplied what might amount to evidence of deliberate agricultural activity on Mars. Frame 52-A-35 shows a series of parallel grooves resembling contoured farmland—as one would find in the high mountains of Peru’s Sacred Valley. The photo caption prepared by the NASA News Center in Pasadena, California, when the photograph was released on August 18, 1976, stated thus:

  • Peculiar geometric markings, so regular that they appear almost artificial can be seen in this Mars picture taken by Viking Orbiter 1 on August 12 from a range of 2053 kilometers (1273 miles)…
  • The parallel contours look very much like an aerial view of plowed ground…
  • The feature’s similarity to a “farmer’s field after plowing” was noticed as soon as the image was received, and the comment of Michael Carr, head of the imaging team, was, “we’re getting some strange things, it’s very puzzling. . . It’s hard to believe of a natural cause because the stripes are so regular.” Not surprising, perhaps, was the location: the Cydonia region, site of the Face and other enigmatic features!


Since the Anunnaki counted the planets from the outside inward, Mars was the sixth planet; and the Sumerians depicted it accordingly by the symbol of a six-pointed star… Using these symbols as a clue, we can now turn to examine an amazing Sumerian depiction on a cylinder seal. It shows a spacecraft, with its solar panels and antennas extended, passing between the sixth and the seventh planet (Earth), that is, between Mars and Earth. A winged Anunnaki… [by the seven dots which represent Earth] is greeting another [using a helmet and by the six point star representing Mars]…

Even more enlightening as to what role Mars, or the space facilities on it, had played on the journeys of the Anunnaki to Earth is the Babylonian text concerning the Akitu festival…

The Akitu ceremonies included a reenactment by Marduk of the voyages of the Anunnaki from Nibiru/Marduk to Earth. Each planet passed on the way was symbolized by a way station… The station/planet Mars was termed “The Traveler’s Ship,” and I have taken it to mean that it was at Mars that the astronauts and cargo coming from Nibiru transferred to smaller spacecraft in which they were transported to Earth (and vice versa)… Nearing Earth, these transporters linked up with the Earth orbiting station(s) manned by the Igigi…

The Cydonia region, Mars.

The Cydonia region, Mars.

Planners of the forthcoming steps into space by Mankind envision almost the same sequence of different vehicles… In this, once again, modern science is only catching up with ancient knowledge.

Coupled with these ancient texts and depictions, the photographic data from the surface of Mars, and the similarities between the Martian structures and those on Earth erected by the Anunnaki all lead to one plausible conclusion: Mars, sometime in the past was the site of a space base. And there is also evidence suggesting that the ancient space base has been reactivated—in our very own time, in these very days.

Continue to Chapter 12: Phobos: Malfunction or Star Wars Incident