“…The lesson of the destruction of Sumer and Ur was that chance and alterable Fate cannot supersede unalterable Destiny. But what about the other way – can a Fate, no matter by whom decreed, be superseded by Destiny?
“…The issue had certainly been pondered in antiquity, for otherwise what was the reason for prayer and supplications that had begun then, of the admonitions of the Prophets for righteousness and repentance?
“…Just as the tale of Gilgamesh demonstrated that Fate could not override his ultimate Destiny (to die as a mortal), so did other tales convey the moral that neither can Fate bring about death if it was not yet destined. A paramount example was none other than Marduk himself, who of all the gods of antiquity set a record in suffering setbacks, of disappearances and reappearances, of exiles and returns, of apparent death and unexpected resurrection; so much so, in fact, that when the full scope of the events concerning Marduk became known after the discovery of ancient inscriptions, scholars seriously debated at the turn of this century whether his story was a prototype of the story of Christ. (The notion was abetted by the close affinity between Marduk with his father Enki on the one hand and with his son Nabu on the other hand, creating the impression of an early Trinity).
“…Not even a Shakespeare could conceive the tragic irony of the events that followed the entombment and resurrection of Marduk as a result of Inanna’s outcry. For as things turned out, while he had not truly died or really come back from the dead, his accuser Inanna did meet actual death and attained true resurrection… for it was her Fate, not her Destiny, to meet her death; and it was because of that distinction that she could be resurrected. And the account of those events illuminates the issues of Life, Death, and Resurrection not, as the Epic of Gilgamesh, among mortals and demigods, but among the gods themselves. In her tale of Fate versus Destiny, there are clues to the resolution of enigmas that have been calling out for solutions.
“…The tale is recorded in texts written first in the original Sumerian language, with later renderings in Akkadian. Scholars refer to the various renditions as the tale of Inanna’s Descent to the Lower World, although some prefer the term Netherworld instead of Lower World, implying a hellish domain of the dead. But in fact Inanna set course to the Lower World, which was the geographic term denoting the southernmost part of Africa… And although Inanna was warned not to go there, she decided to make the trip anyway.
“…Attending the funeral rites of her beloved Dumuzi was the reason Inanna gave for the journey… but Inanna intended to demand that Nergal, as an older brother of Dumuzi, sleep with her so that a son be born as a pseudo-son of Dumuzi (who had died sonless) and that intention infuriated Ereshkigal [her sister].
“…Ereshkigal ordered that Inanna be subjected to the “Eyes of Death” – some kind of death rays – that turned the body of Inanna into a corpse; and the corpse was hung on a stake. According to the later Akkadian version, Ereshkigal ordered her chamberlain Nantar to “release against Ishtar the sixty miseries” – afflictions of the eyes, the heart, the head, the feet, “of all parts of her, against her whole body” – putting Ishtar to death.
“…Anticipating trouble, Inanna/Ishtar had instructed her own chamberlain, Ninshubur, to raise an outcry in the event she did not return in three days… Ninshubur appealed to Enlil and Nannar, Inanna’s father… but they were helpless, but Enki was able to help. He fashioned two artificial beings who could not be harmed by the Eyes of Death, and sent them to the rescue mission. To one android he gave the Food of Life, to the other the Water of Life; and so provided, they descended to the abode of Ereshkigal to reclaim Inanna’s lifeless body. Then,
Upon the corpse, hung from the stake,
they directed the Pulser and the Emitter,
Upon the flesh that had been smitten,
sixty times the Food of Life,
sixty times the Water of Life,
they sprinkled upon it;
And Inanna arose.
“…The androids whom Enki had fashioned to return Inanna from the dead, however, were not the Fishmen-doctor/priests shown in [a] depiction. Requiring food nor water, sexless and bloodless, they may have looked more like the figurines of divine android messengers. It was as androids that they were not affected by Ereshkigal’s death rays.
“…It was Namtar, [Fate, that could be altered] who put Ishtar to death [not NAM “Destiny] by “releasing against her the sixty miseries.”
Mr. Sitchin relates at this point also the tale of Dumuzi, [the beloved of Inanna], whose death had been caused by Marduk.
“…Inanna ordered that the preserved body be put upon a stone-slab of lapis lazuli to be kept in a special shrine. It should be preserved, she said, so that one day, on the Final Day, Dumuzi could return from the dead and “come up to me.” For that, she asserted, would be the day when
The dead one will arise
and smell the sweet incense.
“…This, one should note, is the first mention of a belief in a Final Day when the dead shall arise. It was such a belief that caused the annual wailing for Tammuz (the Semitic rendering of Dumuzi) that continued for millennia even unto the time of the Prophet Ezequiel.
“…The death and mummification of Dumuzi… provide important insights. When he and Inanna/Ishtar fell in love – he an Enkiite, she an Enlilite – in the midst of conflicts between the two divine clans, the betrothal received the blessing of Inanna’s parents, Nannar/Sin and his spouse Ningal/Nikkal. One of the texts in the series of Dumuzi and Inanna love songs has Ningal, “speaking with authority,” saying to Dumuzi:
Dumuzi the desire and love of Inanna:
I will give you life unto distant days;
I will preserve it for you,
I will watch over your House of Life.
“…But in fact Ningal had no such authority, for all matters of Destiny and Fate were in the hands of Anu and Enlil. And as all later knew, a tragic and untimely death did befall Dumuzi.
“…The failure of a divine promise in a matter of life and death is not the only disturbing aspect of the tragic fate of Dumuzi. It raises the issue of the gods’ immortality; we have explained in our writings that it was only a relative longevity, a life resulting from the fact that one year on Nibiru equaled 3,600 Earth years. But to those that in antiquity considered the Anunnaki to be gods, the tale of Dumuzi’s death had to come as a shock. Was it because she had indeed expected Dumuzi to come to life on the Final Day that Inanna ordered his embalmment and his placement on a stone slab rather than burial – or in order to preserve the illusion of divine immortality for the masses? Yes, she might have been saying, the god had died, but that is only a temporary transitional phase, for in due time he shall be resurrected, he will arise and enjoy the sweet incense smells.
After writing about another tale, of Ba’al’s death and resurrection, Mr. Sitchin continues:
“…It is perhaps in light of the unacceptability of a god’s death that the notion of resurrection has been brought into play. And whether or not Inanna herself believed that her beloved would return from the dead, the elaborate preservation of Dumuzi’s body and her accompanying words also preserved, among the human masses, the illusion of the immortality of the gods.
“…The procedure that she personally outlined for the preservation, so that on the Final Day Dumuzi could arise and rejoin her, is undoubtedly the procedure known as mummification. This might come as a shock to Egyptologists, who have held that mummification began in Egypt at the time of the Third Dynasty, circa 2800 B.C.
“…Inanna ordered that the preserved body be put to rest upon a stone slab of lapis lazuli, to be kept in a special shrine. She named the shrine E.MASH – “House/Temple of the Serpent.” It was perhaps more than a symbolic gesture of placing the dead son of Enki in his father’s hands. For Enki was not only the Nachash – Serpent, as well as Knower of Secrets – of the Bible. In Egypt, too, his symbol was the serpent and the hieroglyph of his name PTAH represented the double helix of DNA, for that was the key to all matters of life and death.
“…Dumuzi was an African god. It was thus perhaps inevitable that his death and embalmment would be compared by scholars to the tragic tale of the great Egyptian god Osiris.
“…Like Inanna before her, so did Isis enshroud and mummify her deceased spouse, thereby giving rise in Egypt (as Inanna’s deed had done in Sumer and Akkad) to the notion of the resurrected god. While in Inanna’s case the deed by the goddess might have been intended to satisfy a personal denial of the loss as well as to affirm the gods’ immortality, in Egypt the act became a pillar of the pharaonic belief that the human king could also undergo the transfiguration and, by emulating Osiris, attain immortality in an afterlife with the gods. In the words of E.A. Wallis Budge in the preface of his masterwork Osiris & The Egyptian Resurrection, “The central figure of the ancient Egyptian Religion was Osiris, and the chief fundamentals of his cult were the belief in his divinity, death, resurrection and absolute control of the destinies of the bodies and souls of men.” The principal shrines to Osiris in Abydos and Denderah depicted the steps in the god’s resurrection.
Osiris as Supreme Judge
Osiris as Supreme Judge
Mr. Sitchin has described the journey of the Pharaoh to the “Afterlife” in his book The Stairway to Heaven.
“…The resurrection of Osiris was coupled with another miraculous feat, that of bringing about the birth of his son, Horus, well after Osiris himself was dead and dismembered. In both events, which the Egyptians rightly considered to be magical, a god called Thoth (always shown in Egyptian art as Ibis-headed), played the decisive role. It was he who aided Isis in putting the dismembered Osiris together, and then instructed her how to extract the “essence” of Osiris from his dismembered and dead body, and then impregnate herself artificially. Doing that, she managed to become pregnant and give birth to a son, Horus.
The essence was not the semen as some might believe, but the “genetic” essence of Osiris.
Because of conflicts with Seth, the child Horus had to be hidden.
He died from a poisonous scorpion sting.
Then Isis sent a cry to heaven
and addressed her appeal to the
Boat of Millions of Years . . .
And Thoth came down…
“…Thus revived and resurrected from death (and perhaps forever immunized) by the magical powers of Thoth, Horus, grew up to become Netch-Atef, the “Avenger” of his father.
Horus and Isis
“…That Thoth had indeed possessed the ability to resurrect a dead person who had been beheaded, reattach the head, and return the victim to life, was known in ancient Egypt because of an incident that had occurred when Horus finally took up arms against his uncle Seth. After battles that raged on land, water, and in the air, Horus succeeded in capturing Seth and his lieutenants. Bringing them before Ra for judgment, Ra put the captives’ fate in the hands of Horus and Isis. Thereupon Horus started to slay the captives by cutting off their heads; but when it came to Seth, Isis could not see this done to her brother and stopped Horus from executing Seth. Enraged, Horus turned on his own mother and beheaded her! She survived only because Thoth rushed to the scene, reattached her head, and resurrected her.
“…To appreciate Thoth’s ability to achieve all that, let us recall that we have identified this son of Ptah as Ningishzidda (son of Enki in Sumerian lore), whose Sumerian name meant “Lord of the Tree/Artifact of Life.” He was the Keeper of the Divine Secrets of the exact sciences, not the least of which were the secrets of genetics and biomedicine that had served well his father Enki at the time of the Creation of Man.
“…That secret knowledge, those powers granted to Thoth/Ningishzidda, found expression in Mesopotamian art and worship by depicting him by or with the symbol of the Entwined Serpents – a symbol that we have identified as a representation of the double helix DNA – a symbol that has survived to our time as the emblem of medicine and healing.
“…It is perhaps more than a coincidence that one of the leading international authorities of ancient copper mining and metallurgy, Professor Benno Rothenberg (Midianite Timna and other publications), discovered in the Sinai peninsula a shrine dating back to the times of Midianite period – the time when Moses, having escaped to the Sinai wilderness for his life – dwelt with the Midianites and even married the daughter of the Midianite high priest. Located in the area where some of the earliest copper mining had taken place, Professor Rothenberg found in the shrine’s remains a small copper serpent; it was the sole votive object there.
“…The biblical record and the finds in the Sinai peninsula have a direct bearing on the depiction of Enki as a Nachash. The term has not just the two meanings that we have already mentioned (“Serpent,” “knower of Secrets”) but also a third one – “He of Cooper,” for the Hebrew word for copper, Nechoshet, stems from the same root. One of Enki’s epithets in Sumerian, BUZUR, also has the double meaning “He who knows/solves secrets” and “He of the copper mines.”
“…These various interconnections may offer an explanation of the otherwise puzzling choice by Inanna for a resting place for Dumuzi: Bad-Tibira. Nowhere in the texts is there any indication of a connection between Dumuzi (and, for that matter, Inanna) and that City of the Gods. The only possible connection is the fact that Bad-Tibira was established as the metallurgical center of the Anunnaki. Did Inanna, then, place the embalmed Dumuzi near where not only gold but also copper was refined?
“…Another possible relevant tidbit concerns the construction of the Tabernacle and Tent of Appointment in the desert of the Exodus, in accordance with very detailed and explicit instructions by Yahweh to Moses where gold and silver were to be used and how, what kinds of wood and timbers and in what sizes… Great care is also taken in these instructions regarding the rites… their clothing, the sacred objects… the fashioning of a washbasin in which they had to wash their hands and feet, “so that they die not when they enter the Ark of the Covenant.” And the washbasin, Exodus 30:17 specified, must be made of copper.
“…All these dispersed but seemingly connected facts and tidbits suggest that copper somehow played a role in human biogenetics – a role which modern science is only beginning to uncover (a recent example is a study, published in the journal Science of 8 March 1996, about the disruption of copper metabolism in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s disease).
“…Such a role, if not part of the first genetic endeavor by Enki and Ninmah to produce the Adam, seems to have certainly entered the human genome when Enki, as the Nachash engaged in the second manipulation when Mankind was endowed with the ability to procreate.
“…Copper, in other words, was apparently a component of our Destiny, and a studious and expert analysis of the Sumerian creation texts might well lead to medical breakthroughs that could affect our own daily lives.
“…As for the gods, Inanna, for one, believed that copper might assist her beloved’s resurrection.