“…The heavens bespeak the glory of the Lord and the vault of heaven reveals His handiwork,” the Psalmist wrote. The “heavens” thus described were the nightly skies; and the glory they bespoke was conveyed to Mankind by astronomer-priests. It was them who made sense of the countless celestial bodies, recognized stars by their groups; distinguished between the immovable stars and the wondering planets, knew the Sun’s and Moon’s movements, and kept track of Time – the cycle of sacred days and festivals, the calendar.
“…The sacred days began at dusk of the previous evening – a custom still retain in the Jewish calendar. A text which outlined the duties of the Urigallu priest during the twelve day New Year festival in Babylon throws light not only on the origin of priestly rituals later on, but also on the close connection between celestial observations and the festival’s proceedings. In the discovered text (generally consider to reflect, as the priest’s title URI.GALLU itself, Sumerian origins) the beginning, dealing with the determination of the first day of New Year (the first of the month Nissan in Babylon) according to the spring equinox, is missing. The inscription starts with the instructions for the second day:
On the second day of the month Nisannu,
two hours into the night,
the Urigallu priest shall arise
and wash with river water.
“…Then, putting on a garment of pure white linen, he could enter into the presence of the great god (Marduk in Babylon) and recite prescribed prayers in the Holy of Holies of the ziggurat (the Esagil in Babylon). The recitation, which no one else was to hear, was deemed so secret that after the text lines in which the prayer was inscribed, the priestly scribe inserted the following admonition:
“Twenty-one lines: secrets of the Esagil temple. Whoever reveres the god Marduk shall show them to no one except the Urigallu priest.”
“…After he finished reciting the secret prayer, the Urigallu priest opened the temple’s gate to let in the Eribbiti priests, who proceeded to “perform their rites, in the traditional manner,” joined by musicians and singers. The text then details the rest of the duties of the Urigallu priest on that night.
“…On the third day of the month Nisannu” at a time after sunset too damaged in the inscription to read, the Urigallu priest was again required to perform certain rites and recitations… until three hours after sunrise,” when he was to instruct artisans in the making of images of metal and precious stones to be used in ceremonies on the sixth day. On the fourth day, at “three and one third hours of the night,” the rituals repeated themselves but the prayers now expanded to include a separate service for Marduk’s spouse, the goddess Sarpanit. The prayers then paid homage to the other gods of Heaven and Earth and asked for the granting of long life to the king and prosperity to the people of Babylon. It was after that the advent of the New Year was directly linked to the Time of the Equinox in the constellation of the Ram Star at dawn. Pronouncing the blessing “Iku-star” upon the “Esagil, image of heaven and earth,” the rest of the day was spent in prayers, singing and music playing. On that day, after sunset, the Enuma Elish, the Epic of Creation, was recited in its entirety.
“The fifth day of Nissan was compared by Henri Frankfort (Kingship and the Gods) to the Jewish Day of Atonement, for on that day the king was escorted to the main chapel and was relieved there by the High Priest of all the symbols of kingship; after which, struck in the face by the priest and humiliated into prostrating himself, the king pronounced declarations of confession and repentance…
“…the duties of the Urigallu priest… on that night at “four hours of the night,” recited twelve times the prayer “My Lord, is he not my Lord” in honor of Marduk, and invoked the Sun, the Moon, and the twelve constellations of the zodiac. A prayer to the goddess followed, in which her epithet DAM.KI.ANNA (“Mistress of Earth and Heaven” revealed the ritual’s Sumerian origin. The prayer likened her to the planet Venus “which shines brilliantly among the stars,” naming seven constellations. After these prayers which stressed the astronomical-calendrical aspects of the occasion, singers and musicians performed “in the traditional manner” and a breakfast was served to Marduk and Sarpanit “two hours after sunrise.”
“…The Babylonian New Year rituals evolved from the Sumerian AKITI (“On Earth Build Life”) whose roots can be traced to the state visit by Anu and his spouse Antu circa 3800 B.C., when (as the texts attest) the zodiac was ruled by the Bull of Heaven, the Age of Taurus. We have suggested that it was then that Counted Time, the Calendar of Nippur, was granted to Mankind. Inevitably, that entailed celestial observations and thus led to the creation of a class of trained astronomers-priests.
“…Surprisingly, the texts on the clay tablets (whose scribal colophons identify them as copies of earlier originals) clearly describe two sets of rituals – one taking place in the month Nissan (the month of the spring equinox) and the other on the month Tishrit (the month of the autumnal equinox); the former was to become the Babylonian and Assyrian New Year, and the latter was retained in the Jewish calendar following the biblical commandment to celebrate the New Year “in the seventh month,” Tishrei. While the reason for this diversity still mystifies scholars, Ebeling noted that the Nissan texts appear to have been better preserved than the Tishrei texts which are mostly fragmented, suggesting a clear bias on the part of the later temple scribes; and Falkenstein has noted that the Nissan and Tishrei rituals, seemingly identical, were not really so; the former stressed the various celestial observations, the latter the rituals within the Holy of Holies and its anteroom.
“…Of the various texts, two main ones deal separately with eve time and sunrise rituals. The former, long and well preserved, is especially legible from the point at which Anu and Antu, the divine visitors from Nibiru, are seated in the courtyard of the sacred precinct at eve time, ready to begin a lavish dinner banquet. As the Sun was setting in the west, astronomer-priests stationed on various stages of the main ziggurat were required to watch for the appearance of the planets and to announce the sighting of the moment the celestial bodies appeared, beginning with Nibiru…
“…As these compositions (“To the one who grows bright, the heavenly planet of the Lord Anu” and “The Creator’s image has arisen”) were recited from the ziggurat, wine was served to the gods from a golden libation vessel. Then, in succession, the priests announced the appearance of Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, Mars, and the Moon. The ceremony of washing the hands followed, with water poured from seven golden pitchers honoring the six luminaries of the night plus the Sun of daytime. A large torch of “naphtha fire in which spices were inserted” was lighted; all the priests sang the hymn Kakkab Anu etellu shamame (“The planet of Anu rose in the sky”), and the banquet could begin. Afterward Anu and Antu retired for the night and leading gods were assigned as watchmen until dawn. Then, “forty minutes after sunrise,” Anu and Antu were awakened “bringing to an end their overnight stay.”
“…The morning proceedings began outside the temple, in the courtyard of the Bit Akitu (“House of the New Year Festival” in Akkadian). Enlil and Enki were awaiting Anu at the “golden supporter,” standing by or holding several objects; the Akkadian terms, whose precise meaning remains elusive, are best translated as “that which opens up the secrets,” “the Sun disks” (plural!) and “the splendid/shining posts.” Anu then came into the courtyard accompanied by gods in procession. “He stepped up to the Great Throne in the Akitu courtyard, and sat upon it facing the rising Sun.” He was then joined by Enlil, who sat on Anu’s right, and Enki, who sat on his left; Antu, Nannar/Sin, and Inanna/Ishtar then took places behind the seated Anu.
“The statement that Anu seated himself “facing the rising Sun” leaves no doubt that the ceremony involved a determination of a moment connected with sunrise on a particular day – the first day of Nissan (the spring Equinox Day) or the first day of Tishrei (the autumnal Equinox Day). It was only when this sunrise ceremony was completed, that Anu was led by one of the gods and by the High Priest to the BARAG.GAL – the “Holy of Holies” inside the temple.
“…(BARAG means “inner sanctum, screened-off place” and GAL means “great, foremost.” The term evolved to Baragu/Barakhu/Parakhu in Akkadian with the meanings “inner sanctum, Holy of Holies” as well as the screen which hides it. This term appears in the Bible as the Hebrew word Parokhet, which was both the word for the Holy of Holies in the temple and for the screen that separated it from the anteroom. The traditions and rituals that began in Sumer were thus carried on both physically and linguistically.)
“…Another text from Uruk, instructing the priests regarding daily sacrifices, calls for the sacrifice of “fat clean rams, whose horns and hooves are whole,” to the deities Anu and Antu, “to the planets Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn and Mars; to the Sun as it rises, and to the Moon on its appearance.” The text then explains what “appearance” means in respect to each other of these seven celestial bodies: it meant the moment when they come to rest in the instrument which is “in the midst of the Bit Mahazzat” (“House of Viewing”). Further instructions suggest that this enclosure was “on topmost stage of the temple-tower of the god Anu.”
“…Depictions have been found that show divine beings flanking a temple entrance and holding up poles to which ring-like objects are attached. the celestial nature of the scene is indicated by the inclusion of the symbols of the Sun and the Moon…
“…Other depictions of poles-with-rings freestanding, not held up, flanking temple entrances suggest that they were the forerunners of the uprights that flanked temples throughout the ancient Near East in ensuing millennia, be it the two columns at Solomon’s temple of the Egyptian obelisks. That these originally had an actual and not just symbolic astronomical function could be gathered from an inscription by the Assyrian king Tiglatpileser I (1115-1077 B.C.) in which he recorded the restoration of a temple to Anu and Adad that was built 641 years earlier and that had been lying in ruins for the past sixty years:
Two great towers
to discern the two great gods
I built in the House of Brilliance –
a place for their joy,
a place for their pride –
a brilliance of the stars of the heaven.
With the master-builder’s artfulness,
with my own planning and exertions,
the insides of the temple I made splendid.
In its midst I made a place for the
rays directly from the heavens,
in the walls I made the stars to appear.
I made their brilliance great,
the towers I made to rise to the sky.
“…According to this account, the two great towers of the temple were not just architectural features, but served an astronomical purpose. Walter Andrae, who led some of the most fruitful excavations in Assyria, expressed the view that the serrated “crowns” that topped towers that flanked temple gateways in Ashur, the Assyrian capital, indeed served such a purpose (Die Jungeren Ishtar-Tempel). He found confirmation for that conclusion in relevant illustrations on Assyrian cylinder seals, that associate the towers with celestial symbols. Andrae surmised that some of the depicted altars (usually shown together with a priest performing rites) also served a celestial (i.e., astronomical) purpose. In their serrated superstructures these facilities, high up temple gateways or in the open courtyards of temple precincts, created substitutes for the rising stages of the ziggurats as the ziggurats gave way to the more easily built flat-rooted temples.
“…The Assyrian inscription also serves as a reminder that not only the Sun at dawn, and the accompanying heliacal rising of stars and planets, but also the nightly Host of Heaven were observed by the astronomer-priests. A perfect example of such dual observations concern the planet Venus, which because of its much shorter orbit time around the Sun than Earth’s appears to an observer from Earth half the time as an evening star and half the time as a morning star. A Sumerian hymn to Inanna/Ishtar, whose celestial counterpart was the planet we call Venus, offered adoration to the planet first as an evening star, then as a morning star…
“…After describing how both people and beasts retire for the night “to their sleeping places” after the appearance of the Evening Star, the hymn continues to offer adoration to Inanna/Venus as the Morning Star…
“…While such texts throw light on the role of the ziggurats and their rising stages in the observation of the night sky, they also raise the intriguing question: did the astronomer-priests observe the heavens with the naked eye, or did they have instruments for pinpointing the celestial moments of appearances? The answer is provided by depictions of ziggurats on whose upper stages poles topped by circular objects are emplaced; their celestial function is indicated by the image of Venus or of the Moon.
“…The hornlike devices (all graphics can be seen at Mr. Sitchin’s books) serve as a link to Egyptian depictions of instruments for astronomical observations associated with temples. There, viewing devices consisting of a circular part emplaced in the center of a pair of horns atop a high pole were depicted as raised in front of temples to a god called Min. His festival, involved the erection of a high mast by groups of men pulling cords – a predecessor, perhaps, of the Maypole festival in Europe. Atop the mast are raised the emblems of Min – the temple with the viewing lunar horns.
“…The identity of Min is somewhat of a mystery… Min was also known as Amsu or Khem, which according to E. A. Wallis Budge (The Gods of the Egyptians) represented the Moon and meant “regeneration” – a calendrical connotation.
“…Was Min perhaps another incarnation of Thoth who was firmly linked to the lunar calendar in Egypt? What is certain is that Min was deemed to be related celestially to the Bull of Heaven, the zodiacal constellation of Taurus, whose age lasted from about 4400 B.C. to about 2100 B.C. The viewing devices that we have seen in the Mesopotamian depictions and those associated with Min in Egypt thus represent some of the oldest astronomical instruments on Earth.
A detail of Sesostris I dancing before the god Min showing him holding a flail, signifying authority; Egyptian relief from Koptos.
“…According with the Uruk ritual texts, an instrument called Itz Pashshuri was used for the planetary observations. Thureau-Dangin translated the term simply as “an apparatus”; but the term literally meant an instrument “that solves, that unlocks secrets.” Was this instrument one and the same as the circular objects that topped poles or posts, or was the term a generic one, meaning “astronomical instrument” in general? We cannot be sure because both texts and depictions have been found, from Sumerian times on, that attest to the existence of a variety of such instruments.
“…The simplest astronomical device was the gnomon (from the Greek “that which knows”), an instrument which tracked the Sun’s movements by a shadow cast by an upright pole; the shadow’s length (growing smaller as the Sun rose to midday) indicated the hourly time and the direction (where the Sun’s rays first appeared and last cast a shadow) could indicate the seasons… In time, this led to actual structural shadow clocks which were built as stairways that indicated time as the shadow moved up or down the stairs.
“Gnomon” (Sun dials) today, Jantar Mantar, India.
“Gnomon” (Sun dials) today, Jantar Mantar, India.
“…Shadow clocks are mentioned in the Bible. The Book of Job refers to portable gnomos, probably of the kind that were used in the fields to tell time, when it observes that the hired laborer “earnestly desireth the shadow” that indicated it was time to collect his daily wages. Less clear is the nature of a shadow clock that featured in a miraculous incident reported in II Kings Chapter 20 and Isaiah Chapter 38. When the prophet Isaiah told the ailing king Hezekiah that he would fully recover within three days, the king was disbelieving…
Isaiah visits King Hezekiah.
“…Be it as it may, scholars by and large agree that the sun clock that served as an omen for the miraculous recovery of the king was in all probability a gift presented to the Judean king Ahaz by the Assyrian King Tiglatpiliser II in the eight century B.C… It was not a Greek invention nor, it seems, an Egyptian one. According to Plyny the Elder, the first century savant, the science of gnomonics was first described by Anaximander of Miletus who possessed an instrument called “shadow hunter.” But Anaximander himself, in his work (in Greek) Upon Nature (547 B.C.) wrote that he had obtained the gnomon from Babylon.
“…The text in II Kings chapter 20, it seems to us, suggests a sundial rather than a built staircase and that it was placed in the Temple courtyard (it had to be in the open where the Sun could cast shadows). If Andrae was right regarding the astronomical function of altars, it was possible that the instrument was placed upon the Temple’s main altar. Such altars had four “horns,” a Hebrew term (Keren) that also meant “corner” as well as “beam, ray” – terms suggesting a common astronomical origin. Pictorial evidence supporting such a possibility ranges from early depictions of ziggurats in Sumer, where “horns” preceded the circular object all the way to Greek times. In tablets depicting altars from several centuries after Hezekiah’s time, we can see a viewing ring on a short support placed between two altars; in a second illustration we can see an altar flanked by devices for Sun viewing and Moon viewing.
“…In considering the astronomical instruments of antiquity, we are in fact dealing with knowledge and sophistication that go back millennia to ancient Sumer.
“…If the process of celestial observation progressed from massive ziggurats and great stone circles to lookout towers and specially designed altars, the altars with which the astronomer-priests scanned the heavens at night or tracked the Sun in daytime must have progressed in tandem. That such instruments became portable thus makes much more sense, especially if some were used not only for the original calendrical purposes (fixing festival times) but also for navigation. By the end of the second millennium B.C. the Phoenicians of northern Canaan had become the best navigators of the ancient world; plying the trade routes, one may say, between the stone pillars of Byblos and the ones in the British Isles, their foremost western outpost was Carthage (Keret-Hadash, “New City”).
“…There they adopted as their main divine symbol the depiction of an astronomical instrument; before it began to appear in stelae and even tombstones, it was shown is association with two double-ringed pillars that flanked the entrance to a temple – as earlier in Mesopotamia. The ring flanked by two opposite-facing crescents suggests observations of the Sun and of the Moon’s phases.
Mr. Sitchin gives an ample description of depictions found in the ruins of a Phoenician settlement in Sicily, and makes a connection of the symbols there with symbols Egyptians used as well, for example:
“…the Sun rising between two mountains. Indeed, the Phoenician device (scholars refer to it as a “cult symbol”) suggesting a pair of raised hands is related to the Egyptian hieroglyph for Ka that represented the pharaoh’s spirit or alter ego for the Afterlife journey to the abode of the gods on the “Planet of millions of years.” That the origin of the Ka was, to begin with, an astronomical instrument is suggested by an archaic Egyptian depiction or a viewing device in front of a temple.
“…All these similarities and their astronomical origin should add new insights to understanding Egyptian depictions of the Ka’s ascent toward the gods’ planet with outstretched hands that emulate the Sumerian device, it ascends from atop a pillar equipped with gradation-steps… The Egyptian hieroglyph depicting this step-pillar was called Ded, meaning “Everlastingness.”
“…The Egyptian Book of the Dead has not reached us in the form of a cohesive book, assuming that a composition that might be called a “book” truly existed; rather, it has been collated from the many quotations that cover the walls of royal tombs. But a complete book did reach us from ancient Egypt, and it shows that an ascent heavenward to attain immortality was deemed connected with the calendar.
“…The book we refer to is the Book of Enoch, an ancient composition known from two sets of versions, an Ethiopic one that scholars identify as “1 Enoch,” and a Slavonic version that is identified as “2 Enoch,” and which is also known as The Book of the Secrets of Enoch. Both versions… are based on early sources that enlarge on the short biblical mention that Enoch, the seventh Patriarch after Adam, did not die because, at age 365, “he walked with God” – taken heavenward to join the deity.
“…Enlarging on this brief statement in the Bible (Genesis chapter 5), the books describe in detail Enoch’s two celestial journeys – the first to learn the heavenly secrets, return, and impart the knowledge to his sons; and the second to stay put in the heavenly abode. The various versions indicate wide astronomical knowledge concerning the motions of the Sun and the Moon, the solstices and the equinoxes, the reasons for the shortening and lengthening days, the structure of the calendar, the solar and lunar years, and the rule of thumb for intercalation. In essence the secrets that were imparted to Enoch and by him to his sons to keep, were the knowledge of astronomy as it related to the calendar.
“…Not only the contents of the Book of Enoch – astronomy as it relates to the calendar – but also the very life and ascension of Enoch are thus replete with calendrical aspects. His years on Earth, 365, are of course the number of whole days in a solar year; his birth and departure from Earth are linked to a specific month, even the day of the month… (the sixth day of the month Tsivan, he was born, and the first day of the month Tsivan was taken away the first time; the second time he was taken away on the same day and month in which he was born).
“…The Ethiopic version is deemed by scholars to be older by several centuries than the Slavonic one, and portions of that older version are in turn known to have been based on even older manuscripts, such as a lost Book of Noah. Fragments of Enoch books were discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The astronomical-calendrical tale of Enoch thus goes back into great antiquity – perhaps, as the Bible asserts, to pre-Diluvial times.
“…Now that it is certain that the biblical tales of the Deluge and the Nefilim (the biblical Anunnaki), of the creation of the Adam and of Earth itself, and of ante-Diluvial patriarchs, are abbreviated renderings of original earlier Sumerian texts that recorded all that, it is almost certain that the biblical “Enoch” was the equivalent of the Sumerian first priest, EN.ME.DUR.AN.KI (“High Priest of the ME’s of the Bond Heaven-Earth”), the man from the city Sippar taken heavenward to be taught the secrets of Heaven and Earth, of divination, and of the calendar. It was with him that the generations of astronomer-priests, of Keepers of the Secrets, began.
“…The granting by Min to the Egyptian astronomer-priests of the viewing device was not an extraordinary action. A Sumerian sculpture molded in relief shows a great god granting a hand-held astronomical device to a king-priest. Numerous other Sumerian depictions show a king being granted a measuring rod and a rolled measuring cord for the purpose of assuring the correct astronomical orientation of temples, as we have seen. Such depictions only enhance the textual evidence that is explicit about the manner in which the line of astronomer-priests began.
“…Did Man, however, become haughty enough to forget all that, to start thinking he had attained all that knowledge by himself? Millennia ago the issue was tackled when Job was asked to admit that not Man but El, “The Lofty One,” was the Keeper of the Secrets of Heaven and Earth:
Say, if thou knowest science:
Who hath measured the Earth, that it be known?
Who hath stretched a cord upon it?
By what were its platforms wrought?
Who hath cast its Stones of Corners?
“…Have you ever ordered Morning or figured out Dawn according to the corners of the Earth? Job was asked. Do you know where daylight and darkness exchange places, or how snow and hailstones come about, or rains, or dew? “Do you know the celestial laws, or how they regulate that which is upon the Earth?”
“…The text and depictions were intended to make clear that the human Keepers of the Secrets were pupils, not teachers. The records of Sumer leave no doubt that the teachers, the original Keepers of the Secrets, were the Anunnaki.
“…The leader of the first team of Anunnaki to come to Earth, splashing down in the waters of the Persian Gulf, was E.A – he “whose home is water.” He was the chief scientist of the Anunnaki and his initial task was to obtain the gold they needed by extracting it from the gulf’s waters – a task requiring knowledge in physics, chemistry, metallurgy. As a shift to mining became necessary and the operation moved to southeastern Africa, his knowledge of geography, geology, geometry – of all that we call Earth Sciences – came into play; no wonder his epithet-name changed to EN.KI, “Lord Earth,” for his was the domain of Earth’s secrets. Finally, suggesting and carrying out the genetic engineering that brought the Adam into being – a feat in which he was helped by his half sister Ninharsag, the Chief Medical Officer – he demonstrated his prowess in the disciplines of Life Sciences: biology, genetics, evolution. More than one hundred ME’s, those enigmatic objects that, like computer disks, held the knowledge arranged by subject, were kept by him in his center, Eridu, in Sumer; and at the Southern tip of Africa, a scientific station held “the tablet of wisdom.”
“…All that knowledge was in time shared by Enki with his six sons, each of whom became expert in one or more of these scientific secrets.
“…Enki’s half brother EN.LIL – “Lord of the Command” – arrived next to Earth. Under his leadership the number of Anunnaki on Earth increased to six hundred; in addition, three hundred IGI.GI (“Those who observe and see”) remained in Earth orbit, manning orbiting stations, operating shuttlecraft to an from spacecraft. He was a great spaceman, organizer, disciplinarian. He established the first Mission Control Center in NI.IBRU, known to us by its Akkadian name Nippur, and the communication links with the Home Planet, the DUR.AN.KI – “Bond Heaven-Earth.” The space charts, the celestial data, the secrets of astronomy were his to know and keep. He planned and supervised the setting up of the first space base in Sippar (“Bird City”). Matters of weather, winds and rains, were his concern; so was the assurance of efficient transportation and supplies, including the local provision of foodstuffs and the arts and craft of agriculture and shepherding. He maintained discipline among the Anunnaki, chaired the council of the “Seven who Judge,” and remained the supreme god of law and order when Mankind began to proliferate. He regulated functions of the priesthood, and when kingship was instituted, it was called by the Sumerians “Enlilship.”
“…On his ziggurat, the E.KUR (“House which is like a mountain”), he had a “beam that searches the heart of all the lands.” He “set up the Duranki,” the “Bond Heaven-Earth.” In Nippur a “bellwether of the universe” he erected. Righteousness and justice he decreed. With “ME’s of heaven” that “none can gaze upon” he established in the innermost part of the Ekur “a heavenly zenith, as mysterious as the distant sea,” containing the “starry emblems … carried to perfection”; these enabled the establishment of rituals and festivals. It was under Enlil’s guidance that “cities were built, settlements founded, stalls built, sheepfolds erected,” riverbanks controlled for overflowing, canals built, fields and meadows “filled with rich grain,” gardens made to produce fruits, weaving and entwining taught.
“…Those were the aspects of knowledge and civilization that Enlil bequeathed to his children and grandchildren, and through them to Mankind.
“…The process by which the Anunnaki imparted such diverse aspects of science and knowledge to Mankind has been a neglected field of study. Little has been done to pursue, for example, such a major issue as how astronomer-priests came into being – an event without which we, today, would neither know much about our Solar System nor be able to venture into space. Of the pivotal event, the teaching of the heavenly secrets to Enmeduranki, we read in a little known tablet that was fortunately brought to light by W.G. Lambert in his study Enmeduranki and Related Material.
“…When the instruction of Enmeduranki in the secret knowledge of the Anunnaki was accomplished, he was returned to Sumer. The “men of Nippur, Sippar, and Babylon were called into his presence.” He informed them of his experiences and of the establishment of the institution of priesthood and that the gods commanded that it should be passed from father to son…
The episode of Enoch in the Bible attests to this as Enoch.
“…passed this knowledge to Methuselah. The book of the Secrets of Enoch includes in the knowledge granted Enoch “all the workings of heaven, earth and the seas, and all the elements, their passages and goings and the thunderings of the thunder; and of the Sun and of the Moon; the goings and changing of the stars; the seasons, years, days, and hours.” This would be in line with the attributes of Shamash – the god whose celestial counterpart was the Sun and who commanded the spaceport, and of Adad who was the “weather god” of antiquity, the god of storms and rains.
“…Appeals by later kings to be granted as much “Wisdom” and scientific knowledge as renowned early sages had possessed, or boasts that they knew as much, were not uncommon. Royal Assyrian correspondence hailed a king as “surpassing in knowledge all the wise men of the Lower World” because he was an offspring of the “sage Adapa.”
A Babylonian king had the same claim.
“…These were references to Adapa, the sage of Eridu (Enki’s center in Sumer), whom Enki had taught “wide understanding” of “the designs of Earth” – the secrets of Earth Sciences.
“…According to the Assyrian references to the wisdom of Adapa, he composed a book of sciences titled U.SAR d ANUM d ENLILA – “Writings regarding Time; from divine Anu and divine Enlil.” Adapa, thus, is credited with writing Mankind’s first book of astronomy and the calendar.
“…When Enmeduranki ascended to heaven to be taught the various secrets, his patron gods were Utu/Shamash and Adad/Ishkur, a grandson and son of Enlil. His ascent was thus under Enlilite aegis. Of Adapa we read that when Enki sent him heavenward to Anu’s abode, the two gods who acted as his chaperons were Dumuzi and Gizzida, two sons of Ea/Enki. There, “Adapa from the horizon of heaven to the zenith of heaven cast a glance; he saw its awesomeness” – words reflected in the books of Enoch. At the end of the visit Anu denied him everlasting life; instead “the priesthood of the city of Ea to glorify in future” he decreed for Adapa.
“…The implication of these tales is that there were two lines of priesthood – one Enlilite and one Enki’ite; and two central scientific academies, one in Enlil’s Nippur and the other in Enki’s Eridu. Both competing and cooperating, no doubt as the two half brothers were, they appear to have acquired their specialties. This conclusion, supported by later writings and events, is reflected in the fact that we find the leading Anunnaki having each their talents, specialty, and specific assignments.
“…Say, if thou knowest science: Who hath measured the Earth, that it be known? Who hath stretched a cord upon it?” So was Job asked when called to admit that God, not Man, was the ultimate Keeper of the Secrets. In the scene of the introduction of the king-priest to Shamash, the purpose or essence of the occurrence is indicated by two Divine Cordholders. The two cords they stretch to a ray-emitting planet from an angle, suggesting measurement not so much of distance as of orientation. An Egyptian depiction of a similar motif, a scene painted on the Papyrus of Queen Nejmet, shows how two cordholders measure an angled base on the planet called “Red Eye of Horus.”
“…Such an orientation was not haphazard or a matter left to guesswork. The Egyptians relied on divine guidance to determine the orientation and major axis of their temples, the task was assigned to Sesheta (Goddess of the Calendar, her symbol was the stylus made of a palm branch, which in Egyptian hieroglyphs stood for “counting the years”… she was the Goddess of Construction, for the purpose of determining the orientation of temples).
“…Determining the correct orientation called for an elaborate ceremony named Put-ser, meaning “the stretching of the cords.”
Mr. Sitchin gives more details in his book about the ceremony.
“…The astral aspects of the ceremony have been made clear by relevant inscriptions, as the one found on the walls of the temple of Horus in Edfu.
“…It records the words of the pharaoh:
I take the peg-pole,
I grasp the club by its handle,
I stretch the cord with Sesheta.
I turn my sight to follow the star’s movements,
I fix my gaze to the astrality of Msihettu
The star-god that announces the time
reaches the angle of its Merkhet;
I establish the four corners
of the god’s temple.
“…In another instance concerning the rebuilding of a temple in Abydos by the Pharaoh Seti I, the inscription quotes the king thus:
The hammering club in my hand was of gold.
I struck the peg with it.
Thou was with me in thy capacity of Harpedonapt.
Thy hand held the spade during the fixing of
the temple’s four corners with accuracy
by the four supports of heaven.
“…Sesheta was, according to Egyptian theology, the female companion and chief assistant of Thoth, the Egyptian god of sciences, mathematics, and the calendar – the Divine Scribe, who kept the god’s records, and the Keeper of the Secrets of the construction of the pyramids.
“…As such he was the foremost Divine Architect.