“…When Hernando Cortes was welcomed by the Aztec king Moctezuma as a returning god, he was presented with an immense golden disk on which were carved the symbols of the cyclical ages in which the Aztecs and their predecessors in Mexico believed. That precious artifact has been lost forever, having been quickly melted down by the Spaniards; but replicas thereof, in stone, have been found. The glyphs represented cycles of the “Suns” or ages of which the present is the fifth.
- the first age was the Age of the White Haired Giants
- the second, the Golden Age
- the third was the Age of the Red Haired People (who, according to the legends, were the first to arrive by ships in the Americas)
- the fourth was the Age of the Black Haired People, with whom the supreme Mexican god, Quetzalcoatl, had arrived
“…All the way south in the pre-Columbian Peru, the Andean people also spoke of five “Suns” or ages.
- the first one was the Age of the Viracochas, white and bearded gods
- the second was the Age of the Giants
- followed by the Age of Primitive Man
- the fourth was the Age of Heroes
- the fifth or contemporary age, the Age of Kings, of which the Inca kings were the last in line
“…The city of Cuzco itself, it appears, was (in the words of S. Hagar in a paper delivered at the 14th Congress of Americanists) “a testimonial in stone” to the South American familiarity with the twelve-house zodiac. The unavoidable conclusion is that knowledge of the zodiacal division of the ecliptic was somehow in the New World millennia ago, and that the ages were measured in the 2,160-year units of Celestial Time.
“…The idea that calendars could be made of stone might seem strange to us, but it was evidently quite logical in antiquity. One such calendar, posing many puzzles, is called Stonehenge… in England, north of the city of Salisbury and about eighty miles southwest of London… Time, we believe, is the key to its secrets.
View of the City of Cuzco, from the Fortress of Sacsahuaman.
Machu Picchu, in the highlands of Cuzco.
“…Stonehenge has been called “the most important prehistoric monument in the whole of Britain,” and that alone justifies the attention it has been given over the centuries and especially in recent times… Stonehenge is indeed the largest and most elaborate of more than nine hundred ancient stone, wood and earthern circles in the British Isles, as well as the largest and most complicated one in Europe.
“…Yet, in our view, it is not only what makes Stonehenge unique that is its most important aspect. It is also what reveals its similarity to certain monuments elsewhere, and its purpose at the specific time of its construction, that make it part of the tale we have called The Earth Chronicles. It is within such a wider framework, we believe, that one can offer a plausible solution to its enigma.
“…Even those who have not visited Stonehenge must have seen, in print or on the screen, the most striking features of this ancient complex: the pair of huge upright stone blocks, each about thirteen feet high, connected at the top by an equally massive lintel stone to form freestanding Trilithons; and these, erected in a semicircle, surrounded in turn by a massive circle of similar giant stones connected at the top by lintels that were carefully carved to form a continuous ring around the paired uprights.
Mr. Sitchin at this point gives more details of the stones of Stonehenge, the number of stones that were supposed to have existed on site and other. He continues further:
“…As if to emphasize the importance of the circular shape already evident, the ring of stones are in turn centered within a large framing circle. It is a deep and wide ditch whose excavated soil was used to raise its banks; it forms a perfect encompassing ring around the whole Stonehenge complex, a ring with a diameter in excess of three hundred feet. Approximately half the circuit of the ditch was excavated earlier this century and then partly refilled; the other portions of the ditch and its raised banks bear marks of being weathered down by nature and man over the millennia.
Night view through the megaliths of Stonehenge, toward the “Heel Stone,” marking the position of the rising Sun on the summer solstice. This photo has been enhanced with artificial lights.
“…The concentric circles of Stonehenge with the Avenue (Mr. Sitchin explains at length this feature in his book) leading to the northeast provide a major clue regarding the purpose for which Stonehenge was constructed. That the direction of the Avenue – its precise northeastern orientation – was not accidental becomes learned when it is realized that a line drawn through the center of the Avenue passes through the center of the circles of stones and wholes to form the structure’s axis. That the axis was deliberately oriented is suggested by a series of holes indicating that the marker stones had once been placed along this axis. One of them, called the Heel Stone, still stands as a mute witness to the builders’ intentions and the site’s purpose; it was undoubtedly astronomical.
“…The idea that Stonehenge was a carefully planned astronomical observatory rather than a heathen cult or occult site (a notion expressed, for example, by calling a fallen stone “Slaughter Stone,” implying human sacrifices), was not easily accepted. In fact, the difficulty grew rather than diminished the more the site was investigated and its date of construction kept shifting backward.
“…A twelfth-century account (Historia regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth) related that the “Giants’ Ring” was “a stone cluster which no man of the period could ever erect and it was first built in Ireland from stones brought by the giants from Africa.” It was then by the advice of the sorcerer Merlin (whom Arthurian legends also connected with the Holy Grail) that the King of Vortigen moved the stones and “re-erected them in a circle round a sepulchre, in exactly the same way as they had been arranged on Mount Killaraus, in Ireland. (That this medieval legend had a factual core was given confirmation by the modern discovery that the blue stones originated from the Prescelley Mountains in southwestern Wales and were somehow transported by land and water over a distance of two hundred fifty miles – first to a site some twelve miles northwest of Stonehenge, where they might have been erected in an earlier circle, and then on to Stonehenge proper).
The Arthurian legends were involved in Stonehenge…
A color souvenir for the 1895 production of “King Arthur,” at the Lyceum Theatre, featuring Merlin the Wizard.
The Welsh hill from where the massive stones for the Stonehenge monument came from.
“…The stone temple was attributed to the Romans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians, or the Druids… Of these various theories, the one concerning the Druids gained the most favour at the time (seventeenth, eighteenth centuries), not least of all because of the research and writings of William Stukely, especially his 1740 work Stonehenge, A Temple Restor’d To The British Druids. The Druids were the learned class or sect of teacher-priests among the ancient Celts. According to Julius Caesar, who is the prime source of information regarding the Druids, they assembled once a year at a secret place for secret rites; they offered human sacrifices; and among the subjects they taught the Celt noblemen were “the powers of the gods,” the sciences of nature, and astronomy…
19th Century depiction of Druids at Henge, Brittany.
Druids perform a summer solstice ceremony within the ring of Trilithons.
Acting in the production of “Julius Caesar,” 1898, California. “He had much information regarding the Druids.”
“…While nothing that has been uncovered by archaeologists at the site reveals any connection with pre-Christian era Druids, the Celts had arrived in the area by that time and there is no proof the other way either, namely that the Druids did not gather at this “Sun Temple” even if they had nothing to do with its much earlier builders.
“…Although Roman legions encamped near the site, no evidence was found to connect Stonehenge with the Romans. A Greek and Phoenician connection, however, shows more promise. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (first century B.C.) – a contemporary of Julius Caesar – who had traveled to Egypt wrote a multivolume history of the ancient world.
“…Drawing on the writings of earlier historians, he quotes from a (by now lost) book by Hecatacus of Abdea, in which the latter had stated, circa 300 B.C., that on an island inhabited by the Hyperborians “there is a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollo and a notable temple which is spherical in shape.” The name in Greek signified a people from the distant north, where the north wind (“Boreas”) comes. They were worshipers of the Greek (later Roman) god Apollo, and the legends regarding the Hyperboreans were thus mingled with the myths concerning Apollo and his twin sister, the goddess Artemis. As the ancients told the twins were the sons of the great god Zeus and their mother Leto, a Titaness… Leto wandered over the face of the Earth seeking a place where to give birth to her children in peace, away from the wrath of Hera, the official wife of Zeus.
Sculpture of “Boreas” on The Tower of Winds.
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.
Gate of Temple of Artemis; Jerash, Jordan.
Detail of Artemis, from Archaic Temple at Kerkira.
Temple of Apollo at Corinth.
From Temple of Apollo at Klaros: a ruined foot of Artemis.
Ruins of Temple of Hera, at Olympia, Greece.
Arches over doorway of Temple of Zeus. Jerash, Jordan.
“…Though not attributing any scientific value to such a legendary or mythological connection with Greece, archaeologists have nevertheless seemed to find such a connection through archaeological discoveries in the area of Stonehenge, which is replete with prehistoric earthworks, structures and graves. These man-made ancient remains include the great Avebury Circle which schematically drawn resembles the works of a modern watch, or even the meshing wheels of the ancient Mayan calendar.
Standing Stones at Averbury Circle.
Standing Stones at Averbury Circle.
“…The ancient remains found also include the miles long trench called the Cursus; a kind of wooden-peg rather than stone-made circle called Woodhenge; and the outstanding Silbury Hill – an artificial conical hill which is precisely circular and 520 feet in diameter, the largest of its kind in Europe (some see significance in the fact that it is situated an exact six purported “megalithic miles” from Stonehenge).
Silbury Hill, Wiltshire, England.
“…Many of those finds reinforced archaeological opinions that the manner in which stones at Stonehenge were smoothly dressed and carefully shaped indicated “influences” from Minoan Crete (the Mediterranean island) and Mycenaean (mainland) Greece.
“…A leading representative of this school has been Jacquetta Hawkes, who in her book, Dawn of the Gods, about the Minoan and Mycenaean origins of Greek civilization, could not help devoting a good portion of the chapter on “Graves and Kingdoms” to Stonehenge… It flowered in the sixteenth century B.C. and the treasures uncovered in the tombs of its kings revealed foreign contacts that undoubtedly included Britain.
Grave Circles at Mycenae.
“…Not all archaeological finds, however, showed such early Greek “influences.” The finds in tombs around Stonehenge included, for example, decorated beads and amber disks bound with gold in a method developed in Egypt and not at all in Greece. Such finds raised the possibility that all those artifacts were somehow imported to southeast England, neither by Greeks nor Egyptians but perhaps by trading people from the eastern Mediterranean. The obvious candidates were the Phoenicians, the renowned sailors-cum-traders of antiquity.
“…It is a recorded fact that the Phoenicians, sailing from their Mediterranean ports, reached Cornwall in the southwest corner of England, quite close to Stonehenge, in the search for tin, with which hardened bronze was made from soft copper. But were any of these peoples, whose trade links flourished in the millennium between 1500 B.C. and 500 B.C., responsible for the planning and construction of Stonehenge? Did they even visit it? A partial answer would depend of course, on when Stonehenge itself was conceived and built, or who else was there to build it.
“…Subjected to radiocarbon dating, remains found in the Ditch (Stonehenge) produced a date in between 2900 to 2600 B.C. – at least a thousand years and probably much more before the sailors from the Mediterranean might have arrived. A charcoal piece found in one of the Aubrey Holes provided a carbon date of 2200 B.C.; an anther pick found near one of the trilithons gave a reading of between 2280 and 2060 B.C.; radiocarbon datings of finds in the Avenue gave dates between 2245 and 2085 B.C.
“…Who was there at such an early time to plan and execute the marvelous stone complex?
“…Were the Neolithic farmers and herders (about 3000 B.C.), the Beaker People (some time after 2500 B.C. and so called because of the shape of their drinking vessels), or even the Early Bronze Age Wessex People (2000 B.C.) capable of creating Stonehenge? or did they just provide the labor and the manpower to construct a complex mechanism in stone devised by advanced scientific knowledge of others?
“…Even an outspoken proponent of the Mycenaean connection, Jacquetta Kawkes, had to admit that Stonehenge… (among other facts)… “It has always seemed that some individual must have initiated it – through swollen ambition or religious obsession – but because the whole design and method of building is so far advanced of anything known in the island before, it has seemed likely that ideas drawn from a more civilized tradition might also have been involved.”
“…But what was that “more civilized tradition” that gave rise to this structure that was beyond compare to anything in prehistoric Europe? The answer must depend on an accurate dating of Stonehenge; and if, as scientific data suggests, it is a thousand to two thousand years older than the Mycenaeans and the Phoenicians, then an earlier source of the “civilized tradition” must be sought. If Stonehenge belongs to the third millennium B.C., then the only candidates are those of Sumer and Egypt. When Stonehenge was first conceived, the Sumerian civilization, with its cities, high-rise temples-cum-observatories, writings, and scientific knowledge, was already a thousand years old, and kingship had already flourished in Egypt for many centuries.
“…For a better answer, we have to put together the knowledge accumulated by now regarding the several phases by which Stonehenge, according to the latest research, came to be.
Mr. Sitchin explains amply in his book, the “phases” in which Stonehenge was built, they were:
Stonehenge I = The Ditch and its embankment,
- The 56 Aubrey Holes,
- Two “gateway stones,” focusing aids to the Heel Stone,
- The Post Holes, may have been intended to hold wooden markers,
- The four rounded Station Stones… to form a perfect rectangle.
- This phase scholars suggest it was constructed between 2900 and 2600 B.C.
“Whoever constructed Stonehenge I, and for whatever purpose, found it satisfactory for several centuries.”
Stonehenge II = At about 2100 B.C., the main event was:
- The introduction of the blue stones, making Stonehenge II a stone “henge” for the first time. What ever the precise route was to haul the bluestones, it is believed that in the end they were brought to the site’s proximity up the River Avon, which explains why the Avenue was extended by some two miles at this phase to connect Stonehenge with the river.
- The so called Altar Stone, was erected within the circles exactly on the Stonehenge axis, facing;
- The Heel Stone to the northeast. “But as the researchers checked the alignment and the position of the outer stones, they discovered to their surprise that the Heel Stone was shifted in this Phase II somewhat eastward (to the right, as one looks from the enclosure’s center); simultaneously, two other stones were erected in a row in front ot the Heel Stone, so as to emphasize the new line of sight.
“Unexpectedly, the researchers realized that the main innovation of Stonehenge II was not the introduction of the blue stones, but the introduction of a new axis, an axis somewhat more to the east than the previous one.
Stonehenge III = Followed Phase II within decades.
“Whoever was in charge decided to give the complex (Stonehenge) a monumental scope and permanence. It was then that Phase III was added:
- The huge sarsen stones… were hauled to Stonehenge from Marlboro Downs, some twenty miles away… even more daunting must have been the task of setting them up… and then all those prepared (dressed to the desired shapes) stones had to be erected in a precise circle or in pairs, and the holding lintels hauled up to be placed on top. How the task, made more difficult by the site’s slope, was achieved, no one really knows.
- Two new Gateway Stones, replaced the old ones.
- The Sarcen Circle and the Trilithon Horseshoe, or oval…
- The inner Bluestone Horseshoe, and the Bluestone Circle (from the old bluestones).
“…In the usual course of scientific studies of ancient sites, archaeologists are the first to be on the scene… and others experts – follow. In the case of Stonehenge, astronomers led the way. This was not only because the ruins were visible above the surface and required no excavation to reveal them, but also because from the very beginning it seemed almost self-evident that the axis line from the center toward the Heel Stone through the Avenue pointed “to the northeast, whereabouts the Sun rises when the days are longest” (to use the words of William Stukeley, 1740) – toward the point in the sky where the Sun rises at the summer solstice (about June 21). Stonehenge was an instrument to measure the passage of time!
“…After two and an half centuries of scientific progress, this conclusion is still valid. All are agreed that Stonehenge was not a place of residence; nor was it a burial place. Neither palace nor tomb, it was in essence a temple-cum-observatory, as the ziggurats (step-pyramids) of Mesopotamia and ancient America were. And being oriented toward the Sun when it rises in midsummer, it could be called a Temple of the Sun.
“…Since this orientation is satisfied by the axis alone, subsequent researchers began in time to wonder whether the additional complexity of Stonehenge – the diverse circles, ovals, rectangle, markers – might signify that other celestial phenomena besides sunrise at summer solstice and other time cycles have been observed at Stonehenge… It was only in 1963, when Cecil A. Newham discovered alignments that suggested that equinoxes too could have been observed and even predicted at Stonehenge, that these possibilities were given modern scientific credence.
“…His most sensational suggestion, however… was that Stonehenge must have also been a lunar observatory…
“…Prominent among the astronomers whose investigations confirmed the incredible capabilities of Stonehenge was Gerald S. Hawkins of Boston University. Writing in prestigious scientific journals in 1963, 1964, and 1965… With the aid of the university’s computers he analyzed hundreds of sight lines at Stonehenge and related them to the positions of the Sun, Moon, and major stars as they were in ancient times, and decided that the resulting orientations could not have been just accidental.
These paragraphs (in the book) also include the calculations of Lunar cycles, bringing in the important cycle of “19 years,” which makes the position of Stonehenge with all its features perfect for measuring celestial time.
“…The proposition that Stonehenge was not only a “Sun temple” but also a lunar observatory, was met at first with fierce resistance…
“…Thom, an engineering professor at Oxford University, conducted the most accurate measurements at Stonehenge, and pointed out that the “horseshoe” arrangement of the sarsen stones in fact represented an oval, and elliptical shape that represents planetary orbits more accurate than a circle. He agreed with Newham that Stonehenge I was primarily a lunar, and not just a solar observatory, and confirmed that Stonehenge was erected where it is because it is only there that the eight lunar observations could be made precisely along the lines formed by the rectangle connecting the four Station Stones.
“…Newham summed up: “With the exception of the five Trilithons, practically all the remaining features appear to have lunar connections.” He agreed that the “56 Aubrey Holes rotate to the eight main alignments of the Moon setting and rising.” Thereafter, even Atkinson (a previous dissenter) admitted that he “has become sufficiently persuaded that conventional archaeological thinking is in need of drastic revision” in regard to the purpose and functions of Stonehenge.
“…Notable participant… of the 1960s and the decade of the 1970s, Sir Fred Hoyle, astronomer and mathematician, held that the alignments listed by Hawkins to various stars and constellations were rather random than deliberate, but fully agreed with the lunar aspects of Stonehenge I – and especially the role of the fifty-six Aubrey Holes and the rectangular arrangement of the Station Stones (“Stonehenge – An Eclipse Predictor” in Nature and On Stonehenge).
“…But concurring that the Aubrey Circle could act as a “calculator” for predicting eclipses (in his opinion it was done by moving four markers around), Hoyle stirred up another issue. Whoever had designed this calculator – Hawkins called it a “computer” – must have known in advance the precise length of the solar year, the Moon’s orbital period, and the cycle of 18.61 years; and Neolithic Man in Britain simply did not possess such knowledge.
“…Struggling to explain how the advanced knowledge of astronomy and mathematics had appeared in Neolithic Britain, Hawkins resorted to ancient records of the Mediterranean peoples. In addition to the Diodorus/Hecatacus reference he also mentioned Plutarch’s quote (in Isis and Osiris) of Eudoxus of Cnidus the fourth century B.C. astronomer-mathematician from Asia Minor who had associated the “demon god of eclipses” with the number fifty-six.
“…In the absence of answers from Man, a glance at the superhuman?
“…Hoyle on his part, arrived at the conviction that Stonehenge was not a mere observatory, a place to see what goes on in the sky. He called it a Predictor, an instrument for foretelling celestial events and a facility for noting them on the predetermined dates… he felt that the Station Stones rectangle and all it implied indicate “that the builders of Stonehenge I might have come to the British Isles from the outside, purposely looking for this rectangular alignment” (which is possible why Stonehenge is located, in the northern hemisphere)…
…”A veritable Newton or Einstein must have been at work at Stonehenge,” Hoyle mused; but even so where was the university where he had learned mathematics and astronomy, where were the writings without which accumulated knowledge could not be passed on and taught, and how could a sole genius plan, execute and supervise such a celestial predictor when for Phase II alone, a whole century was needed? “There have only been about 200 generations of history; there were upward of 10,000 generations of prehistory,” Hoyle observed. Was it all part of the “eclipse of the gods,” he wondered – the transition from a time when people worshiped an actual Sun god and a Moon god “to become the invisible God of Isaiah?”
“…The familiarity in such distant times not only with the nineteen-year cycle of the Moon but also with “prominences” (as mentioned in Diodorus from Hecatacus regarding the Hyperborians), like those of the Earth – surface features such as mountains and plains – is unquestionably amazing.
“…The attribution by Greek historians of the circular structure in Hyperborea to the lunar cycle first described in Greece by the Athenian Meton tosses the problem of Who Built Stonehenge to the ancient Near East; so do the soul-searching conclusions and musings of the above mentioned astronomers.
“…But more than two centuries earlier, William Stukeley had already pointed for answers in the same direction, toward the ancient Near East. To his sketch of Stonehenge, as he understood it to have been, he appended the design he had seen on an eastern Mediterranean ancient coin, which depicts a temple on an elevated platform. This depiction, more explicit, also appears on another ancient coin from the city of Byblos in the same area… It shows that the ancient temple had an enclosure in which there stood a rocket upon a launch pad. We have identified the place as The Landing Place of Sumerian lore, the place where the Sumerian king Gilgamesh witnessed a rocket ship rise. The place still exists; it is now the vast platform in the mountains of Lebanon, at Baalbek, upon which there still stands the ruins of the greatest Roman temple ever built. Supporting the massive platform are three colossal stone blocks that have been known since antiquity as the Trilithon. (image below)
“The answers to the Stonehenge enigma should thus be sought in places far away from it, but in a time frame quite close to it. The When holds the key, we believe, not only to the Who of Stonehenge I, but also to the Why of Stonehenge II and III.”
For, as we shall see, the hurried remaking of Stonehenge in 2100 – 2000 B.C. had to do with the coming of a New Age – Mankind’s first historically recorded New Age.