“…When the Spaniards, and then other Europeans, realized how numerous were the similarities in traditions, customs, and beliefs between those of the American natives and those who have been associated with the Bible and the Hebrews, they could think of no other explanation but the “Indians” were descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. That harkened back to the mystery of the whereabouts of the people belonging to the ten Israelite tribes that formed the Northern Kingdom who were forced into exile by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser.
“…While the exile of the ten tribes by the Assyrians in the eighth century B.C., and then of the remaining two tribes by the Babylonians two centuries later, are historical facts, the “Ten Tribes Connection” to the New World remains in the realm of intriguing legends. Yet, unknowingly, the Spaniards were right in attributing the beginning of a formal civilization, with its own calendar, in the Americas to an exile; but not of people – rather, the exile of a god.
“…The peoples of Mesoamerica – the Maya and Aztecs, Toltecs and Olmecs and lesser known tribes – had three calendars. Two were cyclical, measuring the cycles of the Sun and the Moon and of Venus. The other was chronological, measuring the passage of time from a certain starting point, “Point Zero.”
“…In The Lost Realms we have suggested that it marked the date of the arrival of Thoth, with a small band of aids and followers, in America.
“…Quetzalcoatl, the Great God of the Mesoamericans, was none other than Thoth, we have suggested… Quetzalcoatl, like Thoth, was the god who knew and taught the secrets of temple building, numbers, astronomy, and the calendar. Indeed, the two other calendars of Mesoamerica by themselves offer clues for the Egyptian Connection and for identifying Quetzalcoatl as Thoth.
“…First of the two was the Haab, a solar-year calendar of 365 days that it was subdivided into 18 months of 20 days each, plus an additional five special days at year’s end. Although the 18 x 20 division is different from the Near Eastern one of 12 x 30, this calendar was basically an adaptation of 360 days plus 5.
“…That purely solar calendar did not allow for intercalation – a device that, in Mesopotamia, was expressed in the addition of a thirteenth month once in a given number of years. In Mesopotamia this number, 13, featured in the next calendar.
Mr. Sitchin has explained the variations of the calendar in previous chapters, but he makes a point later in this chapter about the meshing together of the two calendars…
“…to create the grand Sacred Round of fifty-two solar years, for the combination of 13, 20 and 365 could not repeat itself except once in 18,980 days, which meant fifty-two years.
“…The centrality of the number fifty-two, if nothing else, as a hallmark of religious and messianic Mesoamerican beliefs and expectations, pointed to a key similarity between Quetzalcoatl and his Sacred Calendar and Thoth with his calendar of fifty-two. The game of Fifty-two was Thoth’s game, and the Tale of Satni earlier related clearly stated that “fifty-two was the magical number of Thoth.” We have already explained the significance, in terms of Thoth’s feud with Ra/Marduk, of the Egyptian calendar of fifty-two weeks. The Mesoamerican “fifty-two” had “Thoth” stamped all over it.
“…Another hallmark of Thoth was the application of a circular design to edifices related to the calendrical observation of the heavens. The Mesopotamian ziggurats were squarish… Near Eastern temples – Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Canaanite, even Israelite – were rectangular… Only in the unique edifice that Thoth helped build in Lagash was a circular shape adopted. Its only other Near Eastern emulation was at the temple dedicated to Hathor (i.e. Ninharsag) at Denderah; and at Stonehenge, near where the Old World faces the New World on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.
“…If as we believe, he was the Divine Architect of the circular observatories, he was certainly present in the Sacred Valley. His hallmarks among the structures of the Megalithic Age were the Round Observatory atop the Sacsahuaman promontory, the semicircular Holy of Holies in Cuzco, the Torreon in Machu Picchu.
“…The actual domain of Quetzalcoatl/Thoth was Mesoamerica and Central America, the lands of the Nahuatl-speaking and Mayan tribes; but his influence extended southward into the northern parts of the South American continent. Petroglyphs found near Cajamarca in the north of Peru that depict the Sun, the Moon, five pointed stars, and other celestial symbols of the serpent – the unmistakable emblem of Enki and his clan and specifically so of the deity known as the “Plumed Serpent.” The petroglyphs also include depictions of astronomical viewing devices, one held by a person (priest?), as was customary in the Near East, and the other with the curved horns, as were the viewing devices erected in Egypt as the temples of Min.
“…The site appears to have been where ancient routes in the gold lands of the Andes, from the Pacific coast and from the Atlantic coast, met as the latter followed the rivers. Cajamarca itself, somewhat inland and the natural port for it at Trujillo on the Pacific coast, in fact played a historic role in the European conquest of Peru. It was there, at Trujillo, that Francisco Pizarro and his small band of soldiers landed in 1530. They marched inland and established their base at Cajamarca, a city “whose plaza was larger than any in Spain” and “whose buildings were three times the height of a man,” according to the reports of the Conquistadors. It was to Cajamarca that the last Inca emperor, Atahualpa, was lured, only to be imprisoned for a ransom of gold and silver.
Ruins of Chan Chan, the ancient capital of the Chimu Empire, Trujillo, Peru.
Ruins of Chan Chan, the ancient capital of the Chimu Empire, Trujillo, Peru.
“…There are other finds of petroglyphs along the Magdalena River in Colombia, representing the Hittite and Egyptian encounters… In the tomb area of Holmul, Guatemala, a drawing of a pyramid is found…
“…Incredible as it may sound, reference to petroglyphs with astronomical symbols is made in ancient Near Eastern writings. The Book of Jubilees, enlarging and fleshing out the biblical record of the generations that followed the Deluge, describes how Noah instructed his descendants by relating to them the tale of Enoch and the knowledge that was granted him. The narrative continued thus:
“In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, in the beginning thereof, Arpachshad took to himself a wife and her name was Rasu’eja, the daughter of Shushan, the daughter of Elam, and she bare him a son in the third year in this week, and he called his name Kainam.
And the son grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to seek for himself a place which he might occupy as a city for himself.
And he found a writing which former generations had carved on the rock, and he read what there was thereon, and he transcribed it and sinned as a result thereof; for it contained the teaching of the Guardians in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all the signs of heaven.”
“…The petroglyphs, we learn from this millennia-old text, were not mere graffiti; they were expressions of knowledge of the “teachings of the Guardians” – the Anunnaki – “in accordance with which they used to observe the omens of the Sun and the Moon and the stars”; the petroglyphs were the “signs of heaven” of “former generations.”
“…Indeed, in the heartland of Quetzalcoatl’s domain, where the petroglyphs evolved into hieroglyphs akin to the earliest ones in Egypt, the most obvious traces of his presence are astronomically aligned temples, including circular and semicircular ones, and round observatories. Such remains begin with two perfectly round mounds that marked out the astronomical sightline at La Venta, one of the earliest sites of the Olmecs – African followers of Thoth who had arrived in Mexico by crossing the Atlantic circa 2500 B.C.
Giant Olmec Head, from La Venta.
“…Four millennia passed since then till the Spanish conquest, the latest instance of observatory in-the-round was the semicircular pyramid in the sacred precinct of the Aztecs in Tenochtitlan (later Mexico City).
“…Chronologically, between the early Olmecs and the late Aztecs…
Aztec warriors, the one above is 15 feet high and used to support Quetzalcoatl’s Pyramid roof, wearing his insignia.
“…were the countless pyramids and sacred observatories of the Mayas. Some of them, as the one at Cuicuilco were perfectly round. Others, like the one at Cempoala began, as archaeologists have established, as purely round structures but in time changed shape as the small original stairways leading to their top stages evolved into monumental stairways and plazas. The most renown of these structures is the Caracol in Chichen Itza, in the Yucatan peninsula – a circular observatory whose astronomical functions and orientations have been extensively and firmly established.
Mayan Heads of Warriors
Mayan Heads of Warriors
Original small stairway on a Mayan Pyramid.
Monumental stairway at El Caracol, Yucatan.
“…The sightlines in the existing structure have been excessively researched, and undoubtedly include the principal points of the Sun – the equinoxes and solstices, as well as some of the Moon’s major points. Alignments with various stars are also suggested, though not with Venus; that is odd, for in Maya codices the movements of Venus are the principal subject. It is one of the reasons for believing that the sightlines were not devised by Mayan astronomers, but were inherited by them from previous eras.
“…The Caracol’s ground plan – a round tower within a squarish enclosure as part of a larger rectangular structural frame, and the openings for sightlines in the tower itself – bring to mind the shape and layout (now seen only by their foundations) of the circular observatory within its square enclosure and larger rectangular complex at Sacsahuaman above Cuzco. Is there much doubt that both were designed by the same Divine Architect? In our opinion, he was Thoth.
El Caracol complex, Yucatan.
“…Mayan astronomers used viewing devices that are often depicted in the codices and the similarities to Near Eastern instruments, viewing perches, and symbols are too numerous to be just coincidence.
“…The links with the ancient Near East in general, and with Egypt in particular, that are evidence by glyphs and archaeological remains are augmented by legends.
“…Both Nahuatlan traditions, as well as Mayan ones in such forms as the legend of Votan, recount the arrival of “the Fathers and the Mothers,” the tribal ancestors, from across the seas. The Annals of Cakchiquels, a Nahuatlan record, states that while they themselves came from the west, there were others who had come from the east, in both instances “from the other side of the sea.”
“…The Legend of Votan, who had built the first city, that was the cradle of Mesoamerican civilization, was written down by Spanish chroniclers from oral Mayan traditions. The emblem of Votan, they recorded, was the serpent; “he was a descendant of the Guardians, of the race of Can.”
“…The possibility, which we have already mentioned, that the earlier migrants might have been descendants of Cain, relates Nahuatlan beginnings to one of the first recorded forced deportations…
Illustration of the Way of the Nahuatl.
“…It is clear from Nahuatlan and Mayan legends that Quetzalcoatl (Kukulkan in Mayan lore) had come to their lands with a small band of followers, and that his eventual departure was a forced one – an exile imposed by the War God. We believe that his arrival was also the result of a forced departure, an exile, from his native land, Egypt. The date of that first event is a vital component of the Mesoamerican counts of Time.
“…The concept of Ages in Earth’s history and prehistory was a basic tenet of the pre-Columbian civilizations of Mesoamerica. According to the Aztecs their Age or “Sun” was the fifth one and “began 5,042 years ago.” While the Nahuatlan sources were not specific about how much longer this age was to last, the Mayan sources provided a more precise answer through the Long Count. The present “Sun,” they said, will last precisely thirteen baktuns – 1,872,000 days from Point Zero. This represents a Grand Cycle of 5,200 “perfect years” of 360 days each.
“…In The Mayan Factor Jose Arguelles concluded that each baktun date had acted as a milestone in the history and prehistory of Mesoamerica, as will the year A.D. 2012, in which the thirteen baktuns that begun in 3113 B.C. will be completed. He deemed the number 5,200 a key to understanding Mayan cosmogony and ages past and future.
“…In arriving at A.D. 2012 as the end of the Fifth Sun, Jose Arguelles followed the present custom of dividing the 1,872,000 days by the actual number of 365.25 days in a solar year, resulting in the passage of only 5,125 years since the starting point in 3113 B.C. Fritz Buck on the other hand saw no need for such an adjustment, believing that the division should follow the Mayan 360 “perfect Year.” According to Buck, the historic age through which the Aztecs and Mayans had lived was to last a perfect 5,200 years.
“…This number, like fifty-two, is connected with Thoth according to ancient Egyptian sources. Among them were the writings of an Egyptian priest whom the Greeks called Manetho (his hieroglyphic name meant “Gift of Thoth”). He recorded the division of monarchies into dynasties, including the divine and semidivine ones that preceded the pharaonic dynasties; he also provided lengths of reign for all them.
“…Corroborating legends and tales of the gods from other sources, the list by Manetho asserts that;
- the seven great gods –Ptah, Ra, Shu, Geb, Osiris, Seth, and Horus – reigned a total of 12,300 years
- then began a second divine dynasty, headed by Thoth; it lasted 1,570 years
- it was followed by thirty demigods who reigned 3,650 years
- a chaotic time followed, a period of 350 years during which Egypt was disunited and in disarray
- after that a person called Men established the first pharaonic dynasty. Scholars hold that this happened circa 3100 B.C.
“…We have held that the date was 3113 B.C., the starting point of the Mesoamerican Long Count. It was then we believe, that Marduk/Ra, reclaiming lordship over Egypt, expelled Thoth and his followers from that land, forcing them into exile into another, distant land. And if the preceding reign of Thoth himself (1,570 years) and of his appointed demigods (3,650 years) is tallied, the result is 5,220 years – a mere discrepancy of 20 years from the 5,200 perfect years that make up the Great Mayan Cycle of thirteen baktums.
“…As with 52, so was 5,200 a “number of Thoth.”
“…In the olden days, when the Anunnaki were the Lords, the banishment and exile of gods marked milestones in what we have named The Earth Chronicles. Much of that part of the tale concerns Marduk, alias Ra in Egypt; and the calendar – the count of Divine, Celestial, and Earthly Time – played a major role in those events.
“…Ra, the Great God, pointed an accusing finger at Thoth; the accusation directly concerned changes in the calendar: Thoth, Ra accused, “their years cut short, their months had curbed.” This Thoth had achieved by “the destruction of Hidden Things that were made for them.”
“…The outcome could have only meant a switch from the longer solar year to the shorter lunar year – the “making of the great into small.”
“…The exiling of Thoth was treated in Mesoamerica time keeping as Point Zero of the Long Count, according to accepted chronology. In the year 3113 B.C. It must have been an event whose repercussions were recalled far and wide, for it could not be a mere coincidence that according to Hindu traditions (that also divide Earth’s history and prehistory into Ages) the present Age, the Kaliyuga, began on a day equivalent to midnight between February 17 and 18 in 3102 B.C.
“…With Thoth gone and his brothers Nergal and Gibil remote from the center of Egyptian power, Ra/Marduk could have expected an undisturbed supremacy there. But a new rival had emerged on the scene. He was Dumuzi, the youngest son of Enki, and his domain was the grasslands south of Upper Egypt… Dumuzi’s bride was none other than Inanna/Ishtar, a granddaughter of Enlil and one who had fought alongside her brother and uncles to defeat the Enki’ites in the Pyramid Wars… Marduk was made a prisoner of the Pyramid… buried alive there… but rescued in time… however, he was sentenced to exile, and in Egypt Ra became Amen – the Hidden One, a god no longer seen.
“…Where was Thoth in the ensuing centuries, now that his exiler was himself in exile? Apparently roaming distant – guiding the erection of the first Stonehenge in the British Isles circa 2800 B.C., helping orient astronomically megalithic structures in the Andes. Where was Marduk during that period? We really do not know, but he must have been somewhere not too far away, for he was watching developments in the Near East and continuing his scheming to seize the supremacy of Earth – supremacy, he believed, wrongly denied to his father Enki.
“…In Mesopotamia Inanna, ruthless and cunning, maneuvered the kingship of Sumer into the hands of a gardener of her liking … Sharru-kin, “righteous ruler,” known to us as Sargon I.
Sargon enraged Marduk, because he had stolen sacred soil from Babylon, so he destroyed Sargon and his people, and Marduk reinstated himself in Babylon. There he began to fortify the city and enhance its underground water system, making it impervious to attack.
“…Alarmed by the prospect of yet another devastating War of the Gods, the Anunnaki met in council. The chief antagonist was Ninurta… The chain of events, with dramatic and in the end fateful turns and consequences, is described in detail in a text known as the Erra Epos (Erra having been an epithet of Nergal). It includes many of the verbal exchanges between the participants as though a stenographer were present; and indeed, the text (as its proscript attests) was dictated to a scribe after the events by one of the participating Anunnaki.
“…As the story unfolds, it becomes increasingly clear that what was happening on Earth had been related to the heavens – to the constellations of the zodiac. In retrospect, the statements and positions taken by the contestants for the supremacy of Earth – Marduk the son of Enki and Ninurta the son of Enlil – lead to no other conclusion than that the issue was the coming of a New Age: the impending change from the zodiac house of the bull (Taurus) to the zodiac house of the ram (Aries) as the one in which the spring equinox, and thus the calendrical moment for the New Year, would occur.
“…Listing all the attributes and heirlooms, Ninurta thus asserted:
In Heaven I am a wild bull,
On Earth I am a lion.
In the land I am the lord,
among the gods I am the fiercest.
The hero of the Igigi I am,
among the Anunnaki I am powerful.
“…Carefully, choosing his words, Nergal formulated his answer to the assertive Ninurta. Yes, he said, all that is true. But:
On the mountaintop,
in the bush-thicket,
see you not the Ram?
“…Its emergence, Nergal continued, is unavoidable:
In that grove,
even the supermost time measurer,
the bearer of the standards,
the course cannot change.
Once can blow like a wind,
roar like a storm, [yet]
on the rim of the Sun’s orbit,
no matter what the struggle,
see the Ram.
“…But while the change was unavoidable, the time for it had not yet come. “The other gods are afraid of battle,” Nergal said in conclusion. It could all be explained to Marduk, he felt. “Let me go and summon the prince Marduk away from his dwelling,” make him leave peacefully, Nergal suggested.
“…On the way he stopped at Erech, seeking an oracle from Anu at his temple, the E.ANNA. The message he carried to Marduk from “the king of the gods” was this: the Time has not yet come.
“…The Time in question, the conversation-debate between Nergal and Marduk makes clear, was the impending zodiacal change – the coming of a New Age… Marduk received his brother in the E.SAG.IL, the ziggurat-temple of Babylon, the meeting took place in a sacred chamber called SHU.AN.NA, “The Celestially Supreme Place,” which evidently Marduk deemed the most suitable place for the discussion, for he was certain that his time had come, and even showed Nergal the instruments he used to prove it.
“…Realizing what had happen, Nergal argued to the contrary. Your “precious instrument,” he told Marduk, was imprecise, and that is what had caused him to interpret incorrectly “the glow of the heavenly stars as the light of the ordinary day.” While in your sacred precinct you have concluded that “on the crown of your lordship the light did shine,” it was not so at the Eanna, where Nergal had stopped on his way. There, Nergal said “the face of E.HAL.AN.KI in the Eanna remains covered over.” The term E.HAL.AN.KI literally means “House of the circling of Heaven-Earth,” and, in our view, suggests the location of instruments for determining the Earth’s precessional shift.
“…But Marduk saw the issue differently. Whose instruments were really incorrect? At the time of the Deluge, he said, the “regulations of Heaven-Earth shifted out of their groove and the stations of the celestial gods, the stars of heaven, have changed and did not return to their former places.” A major cause of the change, Marduk claimed, was the fact that “the Erkallum quaked and its covering was diminished, and the measures could no longer be taken.”
“…This is a highly significant statement, whose scientific importance – as that of the full text of the Erra Epos – has been ignored by scholars. Erkallum used to be translated “Lower World” and more recently the term is left intact, untranslated, as a word whose precise meaning is undetermined. We suggest that it is a term that denotes the land at the bottom of the world – Antarctica; and that the “covering” or more literally “hair-growth-over” is a reference to the ice cap that, Marduk claimed, was still diminished millennia after the Deluge.
“…When it was all over, Marduk continued, he sent emissaries to check the Lower World. He himself went to take a look. But the “covering,” he said, “had become hundreds of miles of water upon the wide seas”; the ice cap was still melted.
“…The implication of Marduk’s statement that the “regulations of Heaven-Earth had shifted out of their groove” as a result of the melting of the immense ice cap and the redistribution of its weight as water all over the world’s seas, bears further study. Did it imply a change in Earth’s declination? A somewhat different retardation and thus a different precessional schedule? Perhaps a slowing down of the Earth’s spin, or of its orbit around the Sun? The results of experiments simulating the Earth’s motions and wobbles with and without an Antarctic mass could be most illuminating.
“…All that, Marduk said, was aggravated by the fate of instruments in the Abzu, the southern tip of Africa.
“…Marduk waited until the fountains dried up and the floodwaters receded… What he had discovered was that certain instruments “that to Anu’s heaven could reach” were missing, gone. The terms used to describe them are believed by scholars to refer to unidentified crystals. They were:
- to give orders,
- to give lordship,
- the holy radiating stone.
“…In such circumstances, Marduk indicated, was he not right to rely on his own instruments to determine when his Time – the Age of the Ram – had arrived?
Nergal advised Marduk to leave the palace and search for some instruments in the Abzu and verify it all for himself.
“…He (Nergal) was certain that thereupon Marduk would realize that his birthright was not at risk; what was being challenged was the timing of his ascendancy.
Nergal promised that as Marduk was gone he would make the celestial symbols of the Enlilite Age, “the bulls of Anu and Enlil, crouch at the gate of thy temple:
Marduk heard this.
The promise, given by Erra (Nergal) found his favor,
So did he step down from his seat,
and to the land of Mines, and abode of the Anunnaki,
he set his direction.
“…Thus did the dispute regarding the correct timing of the zodiacal change lead to Marduk’s second exile – temporary only, he believed.
“…But as fate would have it, the anticipated coming of a New Age was not to be a peaceful one.