Chapter 10: In Their Footsteps

“…The Great Sphinx of Egypt gazes precisely eastward, welcoming the rising Sun along the 30th parallel. In ancient times its gaze welcomed the Anunnaki “gods” as they landed at their spaceport in the Sinai peninsula, and later on guided the deceased pharaohs to an Afterlife, when their Ka joined the gods in their heavenly ascents. At some time in between, the Sphinx might have witnessed the departure of a great god – Thoth – with his followers, to be counted among the First Americans.

…”For the last 50 years, the received wisdom has been that the 11,500-year-old artifacts found at Clovis, New Mexico, were made soon after the first Americans found their way across the Bering land-bridge,” Science magazine (21 February 1992 issue) wrote in an update on the debate among scientists; “Those who have dared question the consensus have met with harsh criticism.” The reluctance to accept an earlier age and a different arrival route stems primarily from the simple assumption that Man could not have crossed the oceans separating the Old and the New Worlds at such prehistoric times because maritime technology did not yet exist. Notwithstanding the evidence to the contrary, the rock-bottom logic continues to be, if Man couldn’t do it, it didn’t happen.

“…The age of the Sphinx has recently emerged as an analogous issue, where scientists refuse to accept new evidence because it implies achievements by Man when Man could not have achieved them; and guidance or assistance by the “gods” – Extraterrestrials – is simply out of consideration.

“…In October 1991, some fifteen years after our initial presentation of such evidence in The 12th Planet, Dr. Robert M. Schoch, a Boston University geologist, reported at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America that meteorological studies of the Sphinx and its layering indicated that it was carved out of the native rock “long before the dynasties of the Pharaohs.” The research methods included seismic surveying of subsurface rocks by Dr. Thomas L. Dobecki, a geophysicist from Houston, and Egyptologist Anthony West of New York and the study of weathering and watermarks on the Sphinx and its surroundings. The precipitation-induced weathering, Dr. Schoch stated, “indicated that work on the Sphinx had begun in the period between 10,000 B.C. and 5000 B.C., when the Egyptian climate was wetter.”

“…The conclusion “flies in the face of everything we know about ancient Egypt,” the Los Angeles Times added in its report of the announcement. “Other Egyptologists who have looked at Mr. Schoch’s work cannot explain the geological evidence, but they insist that the idea that the Sphinx is thousands of years older than they had thought just simply “does not match up” with what has been known. The newspaper quoted archaeologist Carol Redmount of the University of California at Berkeley: “There’s just no way that could be true… The Sphinx was created with technology that was far more advanced than that of other Egyptian monuments of known date, and the people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or the will to have built such a structure thousands of years earlier.”

“…The final argument by the debunkers was the absence of evidence that a civilization advanced enough to carve the Great Sphinx existed in Egypt between 7000 and 5000 B.C. “The people during that age were hunters and gatherers; they didn’t build cities,” Dr. Lehner said; and with that the debate ended.

“…The only response to this logical argument is, of course, to invoke someone other than the “hunters and gatherers” of the era – the Anunnaki. But admitting that all evidence points to such more advanced beings from another planet is a threshold that not everyone, including those who find the Sphinx to be 9,000 years old, is as yet ready to cross.

The Sphinx

The Sphinx

“…The same Fear-of-Crossing (to coin an expression) has blocked for many years not just the acceptance, but even the dissemination, of evidence concerning the antiquity of Man and his civilizations in the Americas.

“…The discovery near Clovis, New Mexico, in 1932 of a trove of leaf-shaped, sharp-edged stone points that could be attached to spears and clubs for hunting, and subsequently as other North American sites, led to the theory that big game hunters migrated from Asia to the Pacific northwest some 12,000 years ago, when Siberia and Asia were linked by an icy land-bridge. In time, the theory held, these “Clovis People” and their kindred folk spread over North America and, via Central America, eventually also to South America…

“…As linguistic research and genetic trace-backs joined other investigative tools, the evidence began to mount in the 1980s that humans arrived in the New World some 30,000 years ago – probably in more than one migration, and perhaps not necessarily over an ice-bridge but by rafts or canoes hugging the coastlines.

“…That evidence, whose discovery was not only ignored but even initially suppressed, pertains primarily to two sites where Stone Age tools, crushed animals bones, and even petroglyphs have been found.

“…The first of these unsettling settlement sites is Monte Verde, in Chile, on the continent’s Pacific side. There, archaeologists have found remains of clay-lined hearths, stone tools, bone implements, and foundations of wooden shelters – a campsite occupied some 13,000 years ago. This is a date much too early to be explained by a slow southward migration of Clovis People from North America. Moreover, lower strata at this campsite yielded fragmented stone tools that suggest that the site’s human occupation began some 20,000 years earlier. The second site is all the way on the other side of South America, in Brazil’s northeast. At a place called Pedra Furada, a rock shelter contained circular hearths filled with charcoal surrounded by flints; the nearest source of flint is a mile away, indicating that the sharp stones were brought over intentionally. Dating by radiocarbon and newer methods provided readings spanning the period 14,300 to 47,000 years ago.

“…The ongoing challenge to the Clovis theory in regard to the time of arrival has been accompanied by a challenge to the via-the-Bering-strait route as the sole path of arrival. Anthropologists at the Artic Research Center of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., have concluded that the image of animal-skin clad hunters carrying spears across a frozen wilderness (with women and children in tow) is all wrong in thinking of the first Americans. Rather, they were maritime people who sailed in rafts or skinboats to the more hospitable southern shores of the Americas. Others, at the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Oregon State University, do not rule out a crossing of the Pacific via the islands and Australia (which was settled circa 40,000 years ago).

“…Who was there, tens of thousands of years ago, who possessed the technology required for crossing vast oceans by boat, and how could those prehistoric mariners have known that there was land, habitable land, on the other side?

“…This is a question that (also when applied to the Age of the Sphinx) has only one answer: the Anunnaki, showing Man how to cross the oceans, telling him why and whereto – perhaps carrying him over, “on the wings of eagles,” as the Bible has described – to a new Promised Land.

“…The latest archaeological discoveries lend credence to memories of early events that are called “myths” and “legends.” Invariably, they speak of multiple migrations and always from across the seas. Significantly, they often involve the numbers seven and twelve – numbers that are not a reflection of human anatomy or digital counting, but a clue to astronomical and calendrical knowledge, as well as to links with the Old World.

“…One of the best preserved cycle of legends is that of the Nahuatl tribes of central Mexico, of which the Aztecs whom the Spaniards encountered were the latest extant… The earliest tribes, the oral legends and the tales written down pictorially in books called codices related, came down from Azt-lan, the “White Place,” which was associated with the number seven. It was sometimes depicted as a place with seven caves out of which the ancestors had emerged; alternatively, it was painted as a place with seven temples: a central large step-pyramid (ziggurat) surrounded by six lesser shrines. Codex Boturini contains a series of cartoonlike paintings of the early migration by four tribes that began from the place of the seven temples, involved crossing a sea in boats and a landing in a place of cave shelters; the migrants were guided in that journey to the unknown by a god whose symbol was a kind of Seeing-eye attached to an elliptical rod.

Codex Boturini

Codex Boturini

Codex Boturini

Codex Boturini

“…The four clans of migrants then trekked inland, passing by and following various landmarks. Splitting into several tribes, one, the Mexica, finally reached the valley where an eagle was perched on a cactus bush – the signal for their final destination and the place where the Nahuatlan capital was to be built. It later developed into the Aztec capital whose symbol remained the eagle perched on a cactus bush. It was called Tenochtitlan, the City of Tenoch… (as explained in The Lost Realms): according to the Bible Cain, who was banished to a distant “Land of Wandering,” built a city and named it after his son Enoch; and Enoch had four descendants from whom there grew four clans.

“…Sahagun (Historia de las cosas de la Nueva Espana), whose sources were verbal as well as Nahuatlan tales written down after the conquest, recorded the sea voyage and the name Panotlan, of the landing site; the name simply meant “Place of arrival by sea,” and he concluded that it was in what is now Guatemala. His information added the interesting detail that the immigrants were led by four Wise Men, “who carried with them ritual manuscripts and who also knew the secrets of the calendar.” We now know that the two – ritual and calendar – were two sides of the same coin, the worship of the gods. It is a safe bet that the Nahuatlan calendar followed the twelve-month arrangement, perhaps even the twelve-zodiac division; for we read (in Sahagun’s chronicles) that the Toltecs, the Nahuatl tribe that preceded and taught the Aztecs, “knew that many are the heavens; they said that there are twelve superimposed divisions” thereof.

“…Down south, where the Pacific Ocean lapped the coasts of South America, Andean “myths” did not recall pre-Diluvial migrations but knew of the Deluge… The legends do speak clearly of new, post-Diluvial arrivals by sea; the first or most memorable of them was one headed by a leader called Naymlap

“…An ancient relic made of pure gold, now kept in the Gold Museum of Bogota, Colombia, depicts a tall leader with his entourage atop a balsa wood raft. The artwork may well have represented the sea crossing by Naymlap or his like. They were well acquainted, according to the Naymlap legend, with the calendar and worshiped a pantheon of twelve gods. Moving inland where Quito, Ecuador’s capital, is now situated, they built there two temples facing each other: one dedicated to the Sun, the other to the Moon. The Temple of the Sun had in front of its gateway two stone columns and in its forecourt a circle of twelve stone pillars.

“…The veneration of both the Sun and the Moon indicates a solar-lunar calendar, again as the one began in Sumer. A gateway with two stone columns in front of it brings to mind the two columns that were erected at the entrances to temples throughout the ancient Near East, from Mesopotamia through western Asia and Egypt. And as if all those links to the Old World were not enough, we find a circle of twelve stone pillars. Whoever had arrived from across the Pacific must have been aware of the astronomical stone circles of Lagash, Stonehenge – or both.

“…Several stone objects that are now kept in the National Museum of Peru in Lima are believed to have served the coastal peoples as calendrical computers.

“…Fritz Buck (Inscriptiones Calendarias del Peru Preincaico) who made the subject his specialty, was of the opinion (about a stone object) that the 116 pegholes or indentations in the sixteen squares indicated a link to the calendar of the Mayas of Mexico and Guatemala. That the northern parts of the Andean lands were in close contact with the people and cultures of Mesoamerica – a possibility until recently rejected out of hand – is now hardly disputed. Those who arrived from Mesoamerica undoubtedly included African and Semitic people, as evidenced by numerous stone carvings and sculptures… and before them Indo-Europeans have been depicted… Another group may have arrived overland via the Amazon basin and its tributaries; the symbols that were associated with them were identical to the Hittite hieroglyph for “gods.” Inasmuch as the Hittite pantheon was an adaptation of the Sumerian pantheon, it perhaps explains the otherwise remarkable discovery of a golden statuette in Colombia of a goddess holding in her hands the emblem of the umbilical cutter – the emblem of Ninharsag, the Mother Goddess of the Sumerians.

“…Scholars find that throughout the millennia the dominant cultural influence on all these peoples was that of Tiahuanacu (Lake Titicaca); it found its most obvious expression in the thousands of clay and metal objects that bore the image of Viracocha as it appears on the Gate of the Sun

“…The most prevalent of those symbols or, as Posnansky and others consider them, hieroglyphs, was that of the stairway, which was also used in Egypt, and which was often used on Andean artifacts to denote a “Seeing-eye” tower. Such observations, to judge from the astronomical lines of sight at the Kalasasaya and from the celestial symbols associated with Tiahuanacu, included the Moon…

“…On the Pacific side of South America, it thus appears, the calendar and its celestial knowledge followed in the footsteps of the same teachers who had been active in the Near East.

“…Commenting on the evidence, earlier discussed, for the much greater antiquity of human presence in the Americas and their routes of arrival, Dr. Niede Guidon, of the French Institute of Advanced Social Studies who participated with Brazilian archaeologists in the Pedra Furada discoveries, said thus: “A transatlantic crossing from Africa cannot be ruled out.”

“…Pedra Furada is just the most studied site in the area… more than 260 archaeological sites of early occupation are found there, and 240 of them contain rock art. As the carbon dating of the charcoal samples from the prehistoric hearths shows, Man lived there beginning some 32,000 years ago. Throughout the area, such habitation appears to have come to an abrupt end circa 12,000 years ago, concurrently with a marked change in climate. It has been our opinion that the change coincided with the abrupt end of the last ice age by the Deluge, the Great Flood…

“…A hiatus of some two thousand years followed until human occupation of the site resumed, when other and new groups arrived in the area. Their rock art suggests that they had come from a distant land, for animals not native to the area were included in the paintings: giant sloths, horses, an early type of llama, and (according to the excavators’ reports) camels (which, to our eyes, looked more like giraffes). This second phase lasted till about 5,000 years ago and included, in its latter part, the making of decorated pottery. It also included in its art, in the words of Niede Guidon who has led the excavations, “abstract designs” that “seem related to ceremonies or mythical subjects” – a religion, an awareness of the “gods.” It is at the end of that phase that the transition to petroglyphs akin to Near Eastern signs, symbols, and scripts make their appearance, leading in such a third phase to the astronomical and calendrical aspects of the markings on the rocks.

Candelabra or Trident, Paracas, Peru.

Candelabra or Trident, Paracas, Peru.

“…Some scholars, especially in South America, interpret various signs as a kind of cuneiform Sumerian script. The largest petroglyph in that zone is the so-called candelabra or trident that faces whoever reaches South America’s Pacific shore at the Bay of Paracas. According to local lore it is the lightning rod of Viracocha, as seen atop the Gate of the Sun in Tiahuanacu; we have identified it as the Near Eastern emblem of the “Storm God,” the younger son of Enlil whom the Sumerians called Ishkur, the Babylonians and Assyrians Adad, and the Hittites Teshub (“The Wind Blower”).

“…We have shown some of the Hittite signs to be found in Brazil, but probably much more lies unearthed and unstudied behind such a coincidence as the fact that the hill people of Anatolia were the first to introduce iron in the Old World, and the parallel fact that the country’s name, Brazil, is identical to the Akkadian word for iron, Barzel – a similarity that Cyrus H. Gordon (Before Columbus and Riddles in History) considered to be a significant clue regarding the true identity of early Americans. Other clues are the Indo-European types depicted on the busts found in Ecuador and northern Peru, and the fact that the enigmatic inscriptions found on Easter Island, in the Pacific Ocean opposite Chile, run as the Hittite script did in the “as the ox ploughs” system – beginning on the upper line from left to right, continuing on the second line from right to left, then again from left to right and so on.

“…Unlike Sumer, which was situated in an alluvial plain with no stone therein to serve as building materials, the Enlilite domain of Anatolia was all KUR.KI, “mountain land,” of which Ishkur/Adad/Teshub was put in charge. The structures and edifices in the Andean lands were also made of stone – from the earlier cyclopean stoneworks through the exquisite ashlars of the Ancient Empire, down to the fieldstone of the Incas and to the present…

“…Making an on-site visit to the ruins or Hattusas, the ancient Hittite capital, and other bastions nearby, some 150 miles northeast of Ankara, the capital of present-day Turkey, one begins to realize that in some respects they represented crude emulations of Andean stoneworks, even including the unique and intricate incisions in the hard stone to create “the stairway motif.”

Ruins in Anatolia.

Ruins in Anatolia.

Ruins in Anatolia.

Ruins in Anatolia.

“…It is odd that in the increasingly heated debate about the First Americans, little if any attention has been given to the question of how much maritime knowledge the ancient peoples possessed. There are many indications that it was quite extensive and advanced; and once again, the impossible can be accepted as possible only if teachings by the Anunnaki are taken into account.

“…Gilgamesh, having been mothered by a goddess went in search of immortality. His adventures precede in time but exceed in drama those of Odysseus, (of whom it is believed that he might have come to America).

“…Gilgamesh is a known historical ruler of ancient Sumer; he reigned in Erech (Uruk) circa 2900 B.C. Centuries later, Sumerian traders reached distant lands by sea routes, exporting the grains, wool, and garments for which Sumer became known and exporting – as Gudea has attested – metals, lumber, construction, and precious stones. Such two-way repeated voyages could not have taken place without navigational instruments.

That such instruments had existed in antiquity can be judged from an object that was found in the eastern Mediterranean off the Aegean island Antikythera at the beginning of this century…

“…The objects and materials raised from the wreck were taken to Athens for examination and study. Among them were a lump of bronze and broken-off pieces that, when clean and fitted together, stunned the museum officials. The “object” appeared to be a precise mechanism with many gears interlocked at various planes inside a circular frame that was in turn held in a square holder, it seemed to be an astrolabe “with spherical projections and a set of rings.” After decades-long studies, including its investigation with X rays and metallurgical analysis, it has been put on view in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece (catalog number X.15087). The protective housing bears a plaque that identifies the object as follows:

“…The mechanism was found in the sea of Antikythera Island by sponge divers in 1900. It was part of the cargo of a shipwreck which occurred in the first century B.C. The mechanism is considered to be a calendrical Sun and Moon computing machine dated, after the latest evidence, to circa 80 B.C.

“…Even medieval astrolabes, more than a millennium after the Antikythera time frame, look like toys compared to the ancient object. Moreover, the medieval and later European astrolabes and kindred devices were made of brass, which is easily malleable, whereas the ancient device was made of bronze – a metal useful in casting but extremely difficult to hone and shape in general and especially to produce a mechanism that is more intricate than modern chronometers.

“…Yet the instrument was there; and no matter who provided the science and technology for it, it proves that time-keeping and celestially guided navigation were possible at that early time at an incredible level of sophistication.

“…It seems that the reluctance to acknowledge the unacceptable also lies behind the fact that hardly anything concerning early cartography was brought up in the First Americans debate – even with such an opportunity as the 500th anniversary of the Columbus voyage in 1492.

“…In Istambul… the Topkapi Museum, [keeps] another find that throws light on ancient navigational capabilities. It is know as the Piri Re’is Map

“…The Piri Re’is Map attracted particular interest for a number of reasons: first, its accuracy and its sophisticated method of projecting global features on a flat surface; second, because it clearly shows the whole of South America, with recognizable geographic and topographic features of both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts; and third, because it correctly projects the Antarctic continent. Although cartographed a few years after the Columbus voyages, the startling fact is that the southern parts of South America were unknown in 1513Pizarro sailed from Panama to Peru only in 1530, and the Spaniards did not proceed farther down the coast or venture inland to explore the Andean chain until years later. Yet the map shows all of South America, including its Patagonian tip. As to Antarctica, not only how it looks, but its very existence, was unknown until 1820 – three centuries after the Piri Re’is map. Strenuous studies since the map was discovered in 1929 among the Sultan’s treasures have reaffirmed these puzzling features of the map.

“…Brief notations on the map’s margins are more fully explained in a treatise titled Bahariyeh (“About the Sea”) that the admiral wrote. Regarding such geographic landmarks as the Antilles islands, he explained that he obtained the information from “the maps of the Genoese infidel, Colombo.” He also repeated the tale of how Columbus first tried to convince the grandees of Genoa and then the king of Spain that according to a book that he (Columbus) possessed, “at the end of the Western Sea (Atlantic), that is on its western side, there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones.” This detail in the Turkish admiral’s book confirms reports from other sources that Columbus knew quite well in advance where he was going, having come into possession of maps and geographic data from ancient sources.

“…In fact, the existence of such earlier maps is also attested to by Piri Re’is. In a subsequent notation, which explains how the map was drawn, he listed maps made by Arab cartographers, Portuguese maps (“which show the countries of Hind, Sind, and China“), the “map of Columbus,” as well as “about twenty charts and Mappae Mundi; these are charts drawn in the days of Alexander, Lord of the Two Horns.” The latter was an Arabic epithet for Alexander the Great, and the statement means that Piri Re’is saw and used maps from the fourth century B.C. Scholars surmise that such maps were kept in the Library of Alexandra and that some must have survived the destruction by fire of the great hall of science by Arab invaders in A.D. 642.

“…It is now believed that the suggestion to sail westward on the Atlantic to reach existing coasts was first made not by Columbus but by an astronomer, mathematician, and geographer from Florence, Italy, named Paulo del Pozzo Toscanelli in 1474. It is also recognized that maps, such as the Medicean from 1351 and that of Pizingi of 1397, were available to later mariners and cartographers; the most renown of the latter has been Gerhard Kremer, alias Mercator, whose Atlas of 1569 and methods of projection have remained standard features of cartography to this day.

“…One of the odd things about Mercator’s maps of the world is that they show Antarctica, although that ice covered continent was not discovered, by British and Russian sailors, until 250 years later, in 1820!

“…As those who had preceded ( and succeeded) him, Mercator used for his Atlas earlier maps drawn by former cartographers. In respect of the Old World, especially the lands bordering on the Mediterranean, he obviously relied on maps that went back to the time when Phoenicians and Carthaginians ruled the seas, maps drawn by Marinus of Tyre that were known to future generations by the astronomer, mathematician, and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who lived in Egypt in the second century A.D. For his information of the New World, Mercator relied both on olden maps and the reports of explorers since the discovery of America. But where did he get the data not only on the shape of Antarctica, but on its very existence?

Facsimile of a fifteenth century Map of the World according to Ptolemy.

Facsimile of a fifteenth century Map of the World according to Ptolemy.

Medieval Map of Iberia.

Medieval Map of Iberia.

“…Scholars agree that his probable source was a Map of the World made in 1531 by Orontius Finaeus. Correctly projecting the Earth’s globe by dividing it into the northern and southern hemispheres, with the north and south pole as epicenters, the map not only shows Antarctica – an amazing fact by itself. It also shows Antarctica with geographical and topographical features that have been buried under and obscured by an ice sheet for thousands of years!

“…The map shows in unmistakable detail coasts, bays, inlets, estuaries and mountains, even rivers, where none are now seen because of the ice cap that hides them. Nowadays we know that such features exist, because they were discovered by scientific below-ice probing that culminated with intensive surveys by many teams during the International Geophysical Year, 1958. The depiction (which appears on Mr. Sitchin’s book) on the Finaeus map (click image right) it then became clear, uncannily resembles the true shape of the Antarctic continent and its various geographical features.

Oronteus Finaeus World Map of 1532.

Oronteus Finaeus World Map of 1532.

“…Charles H. Hapgood (The Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings) concluded that the Finaeus map was drawn by him based on ancient charts that depicted Antarctica at a time when the continent, after having been freed of its ice covering, began to be covered by ice again on its western parts. That, his research team concluded, was about six thousand years ago, circa 4000 B.C.

“…Presenting his conclusions in Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Charles Hapgood wrote: “It becomes clear that ancient voyagers travelled from pole to pole. Unbelievable as it may appear, the evidence nevertheless indicates that some ancient people explored Antarctica when its coasts were free of ice. It is clear, too, that they had an instrument of navigation for accurately determining longitudes that was far superior to anything possessed by the peoples of ancient, medieval, or modern times until the second half of the 18th century.”

Mr. Sitchin continues:

“…But those ancient mariners, as we have shown, only followed in the footsteps of the gods.

Continue to Chapter 11: Exiles on a Shifting Earth