“The first wave of priests accompanying the conquerors was bent on destroying everything that had to do with the Indians’ “idolatry.”
“…The realization that the Andean Indians believed in a Supreme Creator and that their legends recalled the Deluge, increased the curiosity of the Spanish priests (which followed after the first priests).
“…As in Mexico, after various other ancients peoples have been considered, the Israelites of the Ten Lost Tribes seemed the most plausible explanation not only for the similarity of native legends to biblical tales, but also to such customs among the Peruvian Indians as the offering of the first fruits, and Expiation Feast at the end of September that corresponded to the nature and time of the Jewish day of Atonement, and other biblical commandments such as the rite of circumcision, abstaining from the blood of animal meat, and the prohibition against the eating of fish without scales. In the Feast of First Fruits, the Indians chanted the mystic words Yo Meshica, He Meshica, Va Meshica; and some of the Spanish savants discerned in the word Meshica the Hebrew term “Mashi’ach” – the Messiah.
Other terms were compared by scholars:
Ira Andean, compared to Mesopotamian Ira/Illa, from which the Mesopotamian El stems. Malquis Inca, compared to Canaanite Molekh (Lord), likewise Manco from the same Semitic root, meaning “king.”
“It was in view of such theories of Israelite-biblical origins that the Catholic hierarchy in Peru, after the initial wave of obliteration, moved to record and preserve the Indian heritage.
“Picking up a common point of departure in biblical and Andean recollections – the tale of the Deluge – Montesinos employed the event (Montesinos was a Spaniard who arrived in Peru in 1628 and devoted the rest of his life to the compilation of a comprehensive and chronological history and prehistory of the Peruvians), as his starting point. In line with the biblical record he followed the repopulation of Earth after the Deluge from Mount Ararat in Armenia through the Table of Nations in Chapter 10 of the book of Genesis. He saw in the name Peru (or Piru/Pirua in the Indian tongue) a phonetic rendering of the name Ophir, the grandson of Eber (the forebear of the Hebrews) who himself was the great-grandson of Shem. Ophir was also the name of the famed Land of Gold from which the Phoenicians had brought gold for the temple in Jerusalem that King Solomon was building… Havilah (Ophir’s brother) was also another name for the land of gold.
“…It was much before the times of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, much before the Ten Tribes were exiled by the Assyrians, that peoples from the lands of the Bible had come to the Andes, Montesinos theorized…
“The Inca tales Montesinos assembled, attested that long before the latest Inca dynasty there had been an ancient empire. After a period of growth and prosperity upheavals suddenly befell the land… wars broke out. The king reigning at the time left Cuzco and led his followers to a secluded refuge place in the mountains called Tampu-Tocco; only a few priests remained in Cuzco to maintain its shrine. It was during that calamitous time that the art of writing was lost.
“Centuries passed. The kings went periodically from Tampu-Tocco to Cuzco to consult divine oracles. Then one day a woman of noble birth appeared, whose son had been carried away by the Sun God… the youth reappeared clothed in golden garments… his name was Rocca and by succession, even if not the first born, he was made king with the title Inca – sovereign.
“By giving this first Inca the name Manco Capac, Inca historians likened him to the legendary founder of Cuzco, Manco Capac of the four Ayar brothers. Montesinos correctly separated and distanced the Spaniards’ contemporary Inca dynasty… from its predecessors. His conclusion, that the Inca dynasty consisted of fourteen kings, including Huaina Capac who had died when the Spaniards arrived and his two warring sons, has since been confirmed by all scholars.
“…It is believed that Montesinos had found a copy of Blas Valera manuscript in La Paz, and was allowed by the Jesuit priests there to copy from it.
“…But he (Montesinos) recorded a version whereby the first of the chosen as a leader was a brother that bore the name of the ancestor who had led the people to the Andes, Pirua Manco (and thus the name Peru)…he had decided to build there a city… one of his half-sisters bore him a son who was called Manco Capac. It was this son who built in Cuzco the Temple of the Great God, Viracocha; and therefore it is from that time that the establishment of the empire is counted and the chronicles of the dynasties begin… In his time other deities were venerated, one of them was Mother Earth and another a god whose name meant Fire; he was represented by a stone that spoke oracles.
“The principal science at the time, Montesinos wrote, was that of astrology; and the art of writing on processed leaves of the plantain tree and on stones, was known. The fifth Capac introduced the count of the thousand years as a Great Period, and of centuries and periods of fifty years, equivalent to the biblical Jubilee… Inti Capac Yupanqui, completed the temple and introduced in it the worship of the great god Illa Tici Vira Cocha, meaning “Bright Beginner, Creator of the Waters.”
“In the reign of the twelfth Capac, news reached Cuzco of the disembarking on the coast of “some men of great stature… giants who were settling the whole coast” and, possessing metal implements, were despoiling the land. After a time they began to go into the mountains; fortunately, they provoked the wrath of the Great God and he destroyed them with a heavenly fire.
“Relieved of the dangers, the people forgot the commandments and the rites of worship. “Good laws and customs” were abandoned… In punishment the Creator hid the sun from the land, “there was no dawn for twenty hours.” There was a great outcry among the people and prayers and sacrifices were offered at the temple until the sun reappeared. The king immediately thereafter reintroduced laws of conduct and rites of worship.
“The fortieth Capac established the study of astronomy and astrology and determined the equinoxes. The fifth year of his reign, Montesinos calculated, was the twenty-five hundredth from Point Zero, which he assumed, was the Deluge. It was also the two thousandth year since kingship had began in Cuzco… He (the Capac) was granted the title of Pachacuti (Reformer)…
Incas praise the Sun God.
“In the reign of the fifty-eighth monarch, “when the Fourth Sun was completed,” the count was 2,900 years since the Deluge. It was Montesinos calculated, the year in which Jesus Christ was born.
“…The first Cuzco empire… came to a bitter end in the reign of the sixty-second monarch… “marvels and portents” occurred, and great battles…
“…Thus was the government of the Peruvian monarchy lost and destroyed,” Montesinos wrote, “and the knowledge of letters was lost.”
“…In the reign of the seventy-eighth monarch, when the milestone of 3,500 years since the Beginning was reached, a certain person began to revive the art of writing. It was that the king received a warning from the priests concerning the invention of letters. It was the knowledge of writing, their message explained, that was the cause of the pestilences and accursations that had brought kingship in Cuzco to an end. The god’s wish was “that no one ought to use the letters or resuscitate them, for from their employment great harm would come [again].”
Therefore the king commanded “by law, under the pain of death, that no one should traffic in quilcas, which were the parchments and leaves of trees on which they used to write, nor should use any sort of letters.” Instead, he introduced the use of quipus, the strands of colour cords that has served since then for chronological purposes.
“In the reign of the ninetieth monarch, the fourth millennium from Point Zero was completed. By then the monarchy at Tampu-Tocco was weak and ineffective. In such circumstances a princess of the original blood of the Sons of the Sun, one Mama Ciboca, rose to the occasion. She announced that her young son, who was so handsome that his admires nicknamed him Inca, was destined to regain the throne at the old capital, Cuzco. In a miraculous way he disappeared and returned clothed in golden robes, claiming that the Sun God had taken him aloft, instructed him in secret knowledge, and told him to lead the people back to Cuzco. His name was Rocca; he was the first of the Inca dynasty that came to an ignominious end in the hands of the Spaniards.
“Attempting to put these events in an orderly time frame, Montesinos stated at certain intervals that a period called “Sun” had passed or begun. While what length of a period (in years) he was considering is not at all certain, it would appear that he had in mind Andean legends of several “Suns” in the people’s past.
“Although scholars had held – less so nowadays – that there had been no contact whatsoever between the Mesoamerican and South American civilizations, the latter sound hardly different from the Aztec and Maya notions of five Suns. Indeed, all the Old World civilizations had recollections of past ages, of eras when the gods reigned alone, followed by demigods and heroes, and then just mortals. Sumerian texts called King Lists, recorded a line of divine lords followed by demigods who reigned a total of 432,000 years before the Deluge, then listed the list of kings that reigned thereafter through times that are by now considered historical and whose data has been verified and found accurate. The Egyptian king lists, as composed by the priest-historian Manetho, listed a dynasty of twelve gods that began some 10,000 years before the Deluge; it was followed by gods and demigods until, circa 3100 B.C., the pharaohs ascended the throne of Egypt. Again, when his data could be verified against historical records, it was found to be accurate.
“Montesinos found such notions in the Peruvian collective lore, confirming the reports of other chroniclers that the Incas believed that theirs was the Fifth Age of Sun. The First Age was that of Viracochas, gods who were white and bearded. The Second Age was that of the giants; some of them were not benevolent and there had been conflicts between the gods and the giants. Then followed the Age of Primitive Man, of uncultured human beings. The Fourth Age was that of heroes, men who were demigods. And there was the Fifth Age, the age of human kings, of whom the Incas were last in line.
“Montesinos also placed the Andean chronology in the European frame by relating it to a certain Point Zero (he thought it had to be the Deluge) and – most clearly – to the birth of Christ. The two time sequences, he wrote, coincided in the reign of the fifty-eighth monarch: the twenty-nine hundredth from Point Zero was the “first year of Jesus Christ.” The Peruvian monarchies, he wrote, began 500 years after Point Zero, i.e., in 2400 B.C.
Inca Man counting on a “Quipu.”
“The problem scholars have with the history and chronology of Montesinos is thus not lack of clarity, but its conclusion that kingship and urban civilization began – at Cuzco – almost 3,500 years before the Incas, that civilization, according to the information amassed by Montesinos and those on whose work he had relied, possessed writing, included astronomy among its sciences, and had a calendar long enough to require its periodic reform. All this (and more) was possessed by the Sumerian civilization that blossomed out circa 3800 B.C. and by the Egyptian civilization that followed circa 3100 B.C. Another offshoot of the Sumerian civilization, that of the Indus Valley, came about circa 2900 B.C.
“…Was there a Tampu-Tocco, and was it a place identifiable by the landmarks given by Montesinos?… In 1911, searching for lost Inca cities, Hiram Bingham of Yale University found the place, it is now called Machu Picchu.
“…After repeatedly going back and exhausting excavations over more than two decades, he concluded that Machu Picchu was indeed the lost interim capital of the Old Empire. His descriptions of the place, still the most comprehensive, are in his books Machu Picchu, a Citadel of the Incas and The Lost City of the Incas.
“The principal reason for believing that Machu Picchu is the legendary Tampu-Toco is the clue of The Three Windows. Montesinos recorded that “at the place of his birth Inca Rocca ordered works to be executed, consisting of a masonry wall with three windows, which were the emblem of the house of his fathers, of who he descended.”
“…Machu Picchu, or Great Picchu, is the Quichua name of a sharp peak which rises 10,000 feet above the sea and four thousand feet above the roaring rapids of the Urubamba River, near the bridge of San Miguel… Bingham wrote, “Northwest of Machu Picchu is another beautiful peak surrounded by magnificent precipices, called Huayna Picchu, or Lesser Picchu…”
Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu Peaks.
Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu Peaks.
Back of Machu Picchu Peak.
Machu Picchu Ruins above the Urubamba River.
Mr. Sitchin: “A train that chugs its way up, then down mountains… tunnels and over bridges, hugging the mountainsides flanking the Urubamba River…”
“As befits a city that, we believe, at first served as a model for Cuzco and then emulated it, Machu Picchu too consisted of twelve wards or groups of structures.
“…the dwelling houses are built mostly of fieldstones held together with mortar. The Royal residences are built of ashlars laid in courses, as finely cut and dressed as any in Cuzco. Then there is one structure where the workmanship is so perfect as to be unmatched; and there are the polygonal megalithical stone blocks.
“…The Temple of the Three Windows (as Bingham named it) stands on the Sacred Plaza… The Temple has only three walls, its western side being completely open; there it faces a stone pillar, about seven feet high. Bingham surmised that it might have supported a roof, which (he admitted) would have been “a device not found in any other building.” It is our opinion that the pillar, in conjunction with the three windows, served astronomical sighting purposes.
“Facing the Sacred Plaza on the north is the structure Bingham named Principal Temple; it too has only three walls, some twelve feet high.
“…Winding steps lead from the northern age of the Sacred Plaza up a hill whose top was flattened to serve as a platform for the Intihuatana, a stone cut with great precision to observe and measure the movements of the Sun. The name meant “That Which Binds the Sun,” and it is assumed that it helped determine the solstices, when the sun moves farthest away to the north or south, at which times rites were held to “bind the Sun” and make it return, lest it keeps going away and disappear, returning the Earth to a darkness that had occurred once before according to the legends.
“At the opposite end of the sacred-royal western part of Machu Picchu, just south of the royal ward rises the other magnificent (and unusual) edifice of the city. Called the Torreon for its semicircular shape… The semicircular wall which is reached by seven steps, creates its own sacred enclosure at the center of which there is a rock that has been cut and shaped and incised with grooves. Bingham found evidence that this rock and the masonry walls near it were subjected to periodic fires, and concluded that the rock and the enclosure were used for sacrifices and other rituals connected with the veneration of the rock.
“…The sanctity of the rock in Machu Picchu stems not from its protruding top, but from what lies below. It is a huge natural rock inside of which there is a cave that has been enlarged and shaped artificially to precise geometric forms that look like (but are not) stairs, seats, ledges, and posts. Additionally, the interior has been improved with masonry of white granite ashlars of the purest color and grain. Niches and stone nobbins add to the interior complexity. Bingham surmised that the original natural cave was enlarged and enhanced to hold royal mummies, brought here because the place was sacred. But why was it sacred, and important for depositing the deceased kings, to begin with?
Central Machu Picchu.
The Intihuatana, the stone to measure the movements of the Sun.
The Cave, which lies beneath the Sacred Rock inside of the Torreon.
“The question takes us back to the legend of the Ayar brothers, one of who was imprisoned in a cave at the Haven of the Three Windows. If the Temple of the Three Windows was the legendary one, and the cave so too, then the legends confirm the site and the site is confirmed as the legendary Tampu-Tocco.
“…The ninth Inca (circa A.D. 1340), “being curious about the things of antiquity and wishing to perpetuate his name, went personally to the mountain of Tampu-Tocco… and there entered the cave whence it is held for certain that Manco Capac and his brethren came when he marched into Cuzco for the very first time… After he had made a thorough inspection, he venerated the place by rituals and sacrifices, and placed doors of gold on the window of Capac Tocco and ordered that from that time onward the locality should be venerated by all, making it a sacred prayer place for sacrifices and oracles. Having done this, he returned to Cuzco.”
“…The ninth Inca was called Titu Manco Capac, he was given the additional title Pachacutec (“Reformer”) because after his return from Tampu-Tocco, he reformed the calendar. So, like the Three Windows and the Intihuatana, the Sacred Rock and the Torreon affirm the existence of Tampu-Tocco, the tale of the Ayar brothers, the pre-Inca reigns during the ancient empire, and the knowledge of astronomy and the calendar – key elements in the history and chronology put together by Montesinos.
“…Many South American scholars now join the early chroniclers in believing that the natives of those lands had one or more forms of writing in antiquity.
“…at the start of the conquest, (Father Garcia adds), the Indians of Peru confessed themselves by painting characters that listed the Ten Commandments and the transgressions committed against them.” It is possible to conclude that the Peruvians possessed the use of a picture script, but that their symbols were courser than the Mexican hieroglyphs and that generally the people availed themselves of the quippus.
“Humboldt, (one of the greatest earlier explorers of South America) reported that when he was in Lima he heard of a Missionary named Narcisse Gilbar, who had found among the Panos Indians of the Ucayale river north of Lima, a book of folded leaves, similar to such as had been used by the Aztecs in Mexico; but no one in Lima could read it. “It was said that the Indians told the Missionary that the book recorded ancient wars and voyages.”
“Writing in 1855, Ribero and von Tschudi reported various other discoveries and concluded that there had indeed been another method of writing in Peru besides the quipos… he was shown a photograph of a skin-parchment with hieroglyphic markings. He found the actual parchment in the Museum of La Paz, Bolivia, and made a copy of the writing on it. He determined that the writing started at left continuing on the second line from the right and so on, in a serpentine manner. He also concluded that it was written at the time when the Sun was worshipped, but that was as far as he got.
“He traced the inscription of its place of origin on the shores of Lake Titicaca.
“Arthur Posansky (Guia general Illustrada de Tiahuanacu) found additional inscriptions in this script on rocks on the two sacred islands of Lake Titicaca. He pointed out that was of a kind of enigmatic inscriptions found on Easter Island, a conclusion with which scholars now generally agree. But the Easter Island script is known to belong to the family of Indo-European scripts of the Indus Valley and of the Hittites. A common feature to all of them (including the Lake Titicaca inscriptions) is their “as the oz ploughs” system: the writing on the first line begins on the left and ends on the right; it continues on the second line beginning on the right, ending on the left; the third line then begins on the left, and so on.
“Without going now into the question of how did a script emulating that of the Hittites reach Lake Titicaca, it seems that the existence of one or more forms of writing in ancient Peru has been confirmed. On this count too, the information provided by Montesinos proves correct.
Easter Island Birdman petroglyph.
“If in spite of all this the reader still finds it difficult to accept the inevitable conclusion, that there had indeed been an Old World type civilization in the Andes circa 2400 B.C., there is additional evidence.
“Completely ignored by scholars as a valid clue has been the repeated statement in the Andean legends that there occurred a frightening darkness in long-ago times. No one has wondered whether this was the same darkness – the non appearance of the sun when it was due – of which the Mexican legends speak in the tales of Teotihuacan and its pyramids. For if there had indeed been such a phenomenon, that the sun failed to rise and the night was endless, then it would have been observed throughout the Americas.
“The Mexican collective recollections and the Andean ones seem to corroborate each other on this point, and thus uphold the veracity of each other, as two witnesses to the same event.
“But if even this is not convincing enough, we will call upon the Bible in evidence, and upon none other than Joshua to be the witness.
“According to Montesinos and other chroniclers… “good customs were forgotten and people were given to all manner of vice,” that “there was no dawn for twenty hours.” In other words, the night did not end when it usually does and sunrise was delayed for twenty hours. After a great outcry, confessions of sins, sacrifices, and prayers, the sun finally rose.
“This could not have been an eclipse: it was not that the shining sun was obscured by a shadow. Besides, no eclipse lasts so long, and the Peruvians were cognizant of such periodic events. The tale does not say that the sun disappeared; it says that it did not rise – “there was no dawn” – for twenty hours.
“It was as though the sun, wherever it was hiding, suddenly stood still.
“…Scholars have struggled for generations with this tale in Chapter 10 of the Book of Joshua.
“The incident, whose uniqueness is recognized in the Bible (“There was no day like that before or after”), taking place on the other side of the Earth relative to the Andes, thus describes a phenomenon that was the opposite of what had happened in the Andes. In Canaan the sun did not set for some twenty hours; in the Andes, the sun did not rise for the same length of time.
“Do not the two tales, then, describe the same event, and by coming from different sides of the Earth attest to its factuality?.
“What the occurrence was is still a puzzle. The only biblical clue is the mention of the great stones falling from the skies. Since we know that the tales do not describe a standstill by the sun (and moon) but a disruption of Earth’s rotation on its axis, a possible explanation is that a comet had come too close to Earth, disintegrating in the process. Since some comets orbit the sun in a clockwise direction that is opposite to the orbital direction of the Earth and the other planets, such a kinetic force could have conceivably counteracted temporarily the Earth’s rotation and slowed it down.
Mr. Sitchin explains at this point the timing of the legends, biblical and Andean, coinciding with the legend from Teotihuacan.
“The hard-hitting conclusion is clear:
THE DAY THE SUN STOOD STILL IN CANAAN WAS THE NIGHT WITHOUT SUNRISE IN THE AMERICAS.
“The occurrence, thus verified, stands out as irrefutable proof of the veracity of Andean recollections of an Ancient Empire that began when the gods granted Mankind the golden wand at Lake Titicaca.
Sunset on Lake Titicaca.
Island of the Moon. Lake Titicaca.