“The story of civilization in the lands of the Andes is shrouded in mystery, deepened by the absence of written records or stelae bearing glyphic tales; but myth and legend fill the canvas with tales of gods and giants, and kings who had descended of them.
“…Spanish chroniclers, as well as native ones who had learned Spanish, had established that the father of the two Inca kings at the time of the conquest, Huayna Capac, was the twelfth Inca (a title meaning lord, sovereign) of a dynasty that began in Cuzco, the capital, circa A.D. 1020. It was just a couple of centuries before the conquest that the Incas had swooped down from their highland strongholds to the coastal zones, where other kingdoms had existed from much earlier times. In extending their dominions northward to today’s Ecuador and southward to today’s Chile with the aid of the renowned Highway of the Sun, the Incas essentially superimposed their rule and administration over cultures and organized societies that had thrived in those domains for millennia. The last one to fall under Inca domination was a veritable empire of the Chimu people; their capital Chan-Chan, was a metropolis whose sacred precincts, step-pyramids and dwelling compounds spread over eight square miles.
“Located near the present-day city of Trujillo, where the river Moche flows into the Pacific Ocean, the ancient capital reminded explorers of Egypt and Mesopotamia.
“…The coastal areas that lie between the western range of the Andes and the Pacific Ocean are climatically rainless areas. Habitation and civilization was able to flourish there because the waters flowing off the high mountains into the ocean do so in the form of rivers large and small that transect the coastal plains every fifty to one hundred miles or so. These rivers create verdant and fertile areas that separate one desertlike stretch from the other. Settlements therefore arose on the banks and at the mouths of these rivers; and the archaeological evidence shows that the Chimus augmented these water sources with supplies brought from the mountains via aqueducts. They also connected the successive fertile and settled areas by a road that on the average was fifteen feet wide – the precursor of famed Highway of the Sun of the Incas.
“…Goldsmithing was mastered to an extent never attained by the subsequent Incas… The environs of another city (besides Tumbes), Tucume, have yielded the greater part of the gold objects that had been found in Peru in the century following the conquest… Indeed, the amount of gold the Chimus possessed astounded the Incas when they overran the coastlands. Those legendaries quantities, and the actual finds thereafter, still puzzle scholars; for the gold sources of Peru are not in the arid coastlands, but in the highlands.
“The Chimu culture-state was in turn the successor of previous cultures or organized societies. As in the case of Chimu, no one knows what those people called themselves; the names that are nowadays applied to them are actually names of archaeological sites or rivers at which these societies and their recognizable cultures were centered.
Andes Mountain Range.
Ruins of Chan Chan, the ancient capital of the Chimu empire. Located near the modern city of Trujillo.
Rainbow Temple. Chan Chan.
Moche adobe pyramid.
Chimu Gold Crown.
Relief sculpture of a bird on the latticed walls of an interior plaza in Chan Chan, the ancient capital of the Chimu State.
Adobe Pyramid Temple, known as Temple of The Sun, near Trujillo.
“On the north-central coastal area, the one called Mochica, rolls back the fog of history to about 400 B.C. They are known for their artful pottery and graceful textiles, but how and when these arts were acquired remains a mystery. The decorations on their ceramic vessels are replete with illustrations of winged gods and menacing giants, and suggest a religion with a pantheon headed by the Moon God whose symbol was the Crescent and name was Si or Si-An.
“The Mochica artifacts clearly show that, centuries before the Chimu, they had mastered the art of casting gold, of building with mud bricks, and of laying out temple compounds replete with ziggurats. At a site called Pacatnamu, a buried sacred city with no less than thirty-one pyramids was excavated in the 1930s by a German archaeological team… They determined that the many smaller pyramids were about a thousand years older than the several much larger pyramids that had sides of two hundred feet and were forty feet high.
“The southern border of the Chimu empire was the river Rimac, from which name the Spaniards corrupted Lima as the name of their capital. Beyond this boundary the coastal zones were inhabited, in pre-Inca times, by Chincha tribesmen; the highlands were occupied by Aymara-speaking peoples. It is now known that the Incas had obtained their notions of a pantheon from the former, and the tales of Creation and Beginning from the latter.
“The Rimac region was a focal point in antiquity as it is nowadays. It was there, just south of Lima, that the largest temple to a Peruvian deity had stood. Its ruins from the time it was rebuilt and enlarged by the Incas can still be seen. It was dedicated to Pacha-Camac, meaning “Creator of the World,” a god who headed a pantheon that included the divine couples Vis and Mama-Pacha (“Lord Earth” and “Lady Earth”) and Ni and Mama-Cocha (“Lord Water” and “Lady Water”) the Moon god Si, the Sun God Illa-Ra, and the Hero God Kon or Con who was also known as Ira-Ya, names that evoke a host of Near Eastern divine epithets.
Ear decorations with a Warrior.
Ear decorations with a Warrior.
Portrait Stirrup Spout Bottle of a Chief wearing a Bird Helmet.
Mochica Stirrup Spout Bottle with a Fish.
Gold Funerary Hands.
“The temple of Pachacamac was a “Mecca” for the ancient peoples of the ancient coasts. Pilgrims came to it from far and near… Only select priests could enter the Holy of Holies where, on certain holidays, the god’s image pronounced oracles that the priests then related to the people. But the whole temple precinct was so revered that pilgrims had to take off their sandals to enter it – just as Moses was commanded to do in the Sinai and as Moslems still do as they enter a mosque.
“…Local agents attribute the establishment of this temple to the “giants.” What is known for certain is that the Incas, adopting the veneration of Pachacamac from tribes they had overrun, enlarged and embellished the temple.
“…Not only the living came to pray and to worship here, the dead too were brought to the Rimac valley and the coastal plains to its south, to spend their afterlife in the shadow of the oracle gods; perhaps even for an eventual resurrection, for there was a belief that Rimac could resurrect the dead… The dry climate and the outer sack protected the superbly woven garments, shawls, turbans, and ponchos, and their incredible bright colors. The textiles whose exquisite weaving reminded archaeologists of Europe’s finest Gobelin tapestries, were embroidered with religious and cosmological symbols.
“The central figure, on the textiles as well as on the ceramics, was always that of a god holding a wand in one hand and a thunder-bolt in the other and wearing a horned or rayed crown; the Indians called him Rimac, like the river’s name.
“Were Rimac and Pachacamac one and the same deity, or two separate ones? Scholars disagree, for the evidence is inconclusive. They do agree that the nearby mountain ranges were dedicated exclusively to Rimac. His name meant “The Thunderer,” and thus in meaning and phonetically is akin to the nickname Raman by which Adad was known to the Semitic peoples – an epithet stemming from the verb meaning “to thunder.”
“According to the chronicler Garcilaso, it was in these mountains that “an idol, in the shape of a man,” had stood in a shrine dedicated to Rimac. He may have been referring to any of several sites in the mountains flanking the Rimac valley. There ruins of what archaeologists believe were step pyramids dominate the scenery to this very day, fooling the viewer to imagine he is seeing a seven-step ziggurat in ancient Mesopotamia.
“Was Rimac the god sometimes called “Kon” or “Ira-Ya,” the one called Viracocha in Inca lore? Though no one can say for certain, what is beyond doubt is that Viracocha was depicted exactly as the deity shown on the coastal pottery – holding in one hand the forked weapon and in the other the magical wand.
“It was with that wand – a wand of gold – that all Andean legends of Beginnings commence; on the shores of Lake Titicaca, at a place called Tiahuanacu.
Kawachi, Nazca. Ruins containing pyramids, temples and plazas.
Paredones, Nazca. This was the administrative center of the Incas, who controlled the Nazca region from the mid 15th century. (Modern political graffiti appears on top of the hill).
Andes in clouds near Nazca.
Ray Gods, Nazca.
Gobelins Tapestry at the Palace of the Grand Masters, Valletta.
Paracas, Llama wool cloth with animal motives.
Spanish Lithograph Garcilaso de la Vega.
“When the Spaniards came, the lands of the Andes were the lands of the Inca empire, ruled from the highland capital Cuzco.
“And Cuzco, Inca tales related, was established by the Children of the Sun who had been created and instructed at Lake Titicaca by the Creator God, Viracocha.
“…One of the first padres to record the native tales of their history and prehistory was Blas Valera; unfortunately, only fragments of his writings are known from mentions by others, for his original manuscript was burnt in the sack of Cadiz by the English in 1587. He recorded the Inca version that their first monarch, Manco Capac, exited from Lake Titicaca through a subterranean way. He was the son of the Sun and was given by the Sun a golden wand with which to find Cuzco. When his mother went into labor, the world was in darkness. When he was born, there was light and trumpets sounded, and the god Pachacamac declared that “the beautiful day of Manco Capac had dawned.”
“But Blas Valera also recorded other versions that suggested that the Incas appropriated to their dynasty the person and tale of Manco Capac, and that their true ancestors were immigrants from somewhere else who had arrived in Peru by sea. According to this, the monarch called by the Incas “Manco Capac” was the son of a king called Atau who had arrived to the Peruvian coast with two hundred men and women and disembarked at Rimac. From there they went to Ica, and from there, they marched to Lake Titicaca, the place from which the Sons of the sun had governed the Earth. Manco Capac sent his followers in two directions to find those legendary Sons of the Sun. He himself wandered many days until he came to a place that had a sacred cave. The cave was artificially hewed out and was adorned with gold and silver. Manco Capac left the sacred cave and went to a window called Capac Toco, meaning “Royal Window.” As he came out, he was dressed in golden garments he had obtained in the cave; and by putting on these royal garments he was invested with the kingship of Peru.
Lake Titicaca is around 17,000 feet above sea level.
Hay on Lake Titicaca shore, Totora Reed, Lake Titicaca, Peru.
Island at Lake Titicaca, on Bolivia’s territory.
Reed Boat on Lake Titicaca.
Arrival of the First Inca. Part of a celebration of the landing of the first Inca. People stand on a platform with a sun decoration on it.
“One of the versions regarding the Beginning was that the great god, Creator of All, Viracocha, arranged for four brothers and four sisters to roam the land and bring civilization to its primitive peoples, and one of these brother-sister/husband-wife couples began kingship in Cuzco. The other version was that the Great God, at his base in Lake Titicaca, created this first royal couple as his children and gave them an object made of gold. He told them to go north and build a city where the golden object would sink into the earth; the place where the miracle had happened was Cuzco. And that is why the Inca kings – providing they had been born of a succession of brother-sister royal couples – could claim direct descent of the Sun God.
“Recollections of the Deluge featured in almost all versions of Beginning. According to Father Molina (Relacion de las fabulas y ritos de los Yngas) it was already “in the time of Manco Capac, who was the first Ynca and from whom they began to be called Children of the Sun… that they had a full account of the Deluge…”
No living thing survived except a man and a woman who remained in a box; and when the waters subsided, the wind carried them to Huanaco, which will be over seventy leagues from Cuzco, a little more or less. The Creator of All Things commanded them to remain there as Mitimas, and there in Tiahuanaco the Creator began to raise up the people and nations that are in that region…”
“…The Creator also had with him on the Island of Titicaca the Moon and the Sun, whence they had come on his orders. When all that was needed to replenish the Earth was done, the Moon and the Sun rose up to heaven.
Foundations at Tiahuanaco. Pre-Inca ruins, near La Paz, Bolivia.
Monolith in Gateway of Pre-Inca ruins at Tiahuanaco.
Details of Tiahuanaco Colossus.
A Figure adorns the Puerta del Sol Gateway.
“The two divine assistants of the Creator of All are presented in another version as his two sons. “Having created the tribes and nations, and assigned dresses and languages to them,” Father Molina wrote, “the Creator ordered his two sons to go in different directions and introduce civilization.” The old son, Ymaymana Viracocha (meaning “in whose power all things are placed”), went to give civilization to the mountain peoples; the younger son, Topaco Viracocha (“maker of things”), was ordered to go by way of the coastal plains. When the two brothers completed their work they met at the seashore, “whence they ascended to heaven.”
“Garcilaso de la Vega, who was born in Cuzco to a Spanish father and an Inca mother soon after the conquest, recorded two legends. According to one the Great God came down from the heavens to Earth to instruct mankind, giving it laws and precepts. He “placed his two children at Lake Titicaca,” gave them a “wedge of gold,” and instructed them to settle where it would sink into the ground, which was at Cuzco. The other legend related that “after the waters of the deluge had subsided, a certain man appeared in the country of Tiahuanacu, which is to the south of Cuzco. This man was so powerful that he divided the world in four parts, and gave them to four men whom he honored with the title of king.” One of them, whose epithet name was Manco Capac (“king and lord” in the Quechua language of the Incas), began kingship in Cuzco.
Quechua Indian Mountain Hamlet.
Indigenous people march through a Quito street, Ecuador, carrying the Flag of the Indigenous Peoples of The Andes.
“…A Quechua tale says that Viracocha after establishing kingship in Cuzco, he continued his journey “as far as the coast of Ecuador, where his two companions joined him. There they all began to walk together on the waters of the sea, and disappeared.”
“Some of the tales of the highland peoples focused on how there had come to be a settlement at Cuzco, and how Cuzco had been divinely ordained to become the capital… Manco Capac found the site of the city with his pure gold wand, it was called Tupac-yauri, meaning “splendorous scepter.” Reaching a certain stone, his companions (brothers and sisters were struck with a feebleness, when Manco Capac struck the stone with the magical staff, it spoke up and told him of his selection as ruler of a kingdom… “The Ynca Manco Capac married one of his own sisters, named Mama Ocllo… and they began to enact good laws for the government of their people.”
“This tale, sometimes called the legend of the four Ayar brothers, relates as all other versions of the founding of Cuzco do, that the magical object whereby the monarch and the capital were designated was made of solid gold. It is a clue that we consider vital and central to the unraveling of the enigmas of all American civilizations.
“When the Spaniards entered Cuzco, the Inca capital, they found a metropolis with some 100,000 dwelling houses, surrounding a royal-religious center of magnificent temples, palaces, gardens, plazas and marketplaces… at an elevation of 11,500 feet, Cuzco begins at the promontory of Sacsahuaman… The city was divided into twelve wards – a number that puzzled the Spaniards – arranged in an oval… The twelve wards emulated the division of the heavens (according to leading scholar Stansbury Hagar) into twelve houses of the zodiac. Significantly for our own studies of events on Earth and their timing, Hagar concluded that the first and earliest ward represented Aries.
Sacsahuaman, overlooking Cuzco. An Inca religious-military complex.
Ruins of Sacsahuaman, above Cuzco.
Inca Wall on a street of Cuzco (on other side of street).
Mr. Sitchin explains the splendor of Cuzco by quoting some of the earlier chroniclers, like Pedro Cieza de Leon. Also:
“As the earlier chroniclers attest, the most famous and superb structure of pre-Hispanic Cuzco was the Cori-Cancha (“Golden Enclosure), the city’s and the empire’s most important temple. The Spaniards called it The Temple of the Sun, having believed that the Sun was the supreme deity of the Incas. Those who had seen the temple before it was vandalized, demolished, and built over by the Spaniards, reported that it was made up of several parts. The main temple was dedicated to Viracocha; adjoining or auxiliary chapels were devoted to the Moon (Quilla), Venus (Chasca), a mysterious star called Coyllor, and to Illa-pa the god of Thunder and Lightning. There was also a shrine devoted to the Rainbow. It was there, at the Coricancha, that the Spaniards had plundered the golden riches.
“Adjoining the Coricancha was the enclosure that was called Aclla-Huasi – “The Chosen Women’s House…” for spinning, weaving and sewing the royal and priestly garments… one of their tasks was to preserve the Eternal Fire attributed to the god.
Circular wall of Coricancha, The Golden Enclosure, which housed the Temple of the Sun, is an early example of Inca rectangular masonry. The Church of Santo Domingo stands on the Wall.
“The conquering Spaniards, having plundered the city’s riches, set out to appropriate to themselves the city itself, dividing among themselves by drawing lots its various edifices… The Dominicans, first on the scene, took over the Temple of the Sun… One of the most interesting sections thus used and therefore still intact is a semicircular outer wall of what used to be an enclosure of the Inca temple’s High Altar. It was there that the Spaniards found a great golden disk representing (they assumed) the Sun; it fell by lot to the conquistador Leguizano who gambled it away the following night. The winner had the venerated object melted and cast into ingots.
“After the Dominicans came the Franciscans, the Augustines, the Mercedarios, the Jesuits; they all built their shrines, including Cuzco’s great cathedral, where Inca shrines had stood. After the priests came the nuns; not surprisingly, their convent stands upon the Inca’s convent of the House of the Chosen Women. Governors and Spanish dignitaries followed suit, building their edifices and homes upon and with parts of Inca stone houses.
Jesuit Church of La Compania, Cuzco. It is one of the most ornate churches in Cuzco.
Cathedral, built on Inca ruins, Cuzco. It contains treasures of Colonial Peru and the tomb of Inca/Spanish historian Garcilaso de la Vega.
“Some believe that Cuzco, meaning “Navel, Omphalus,” was so named because it was the capital, a place chosen for a command post. Another theory held by many is that the name means “Place of Raised Stones.” If so, the name suits Cuzco’s main attraction – its astounding megalithic stones.
“…All are agreed by now that while the beautiful ashlars (perfectly cut, dressed and shaped stones, like the ones of the Enclosure) represent a “classical” Inca phase, the cyclopean walls belong to an earlier time. For want of clearer answers, scholars simply call it the Megalithic Age.
“It is a puzzle that still seeks a solution. It is also a mystery that only deepens as one ascends the promontory of Sacsahuaman. There, what is assumed to have been an Inca fortress thrusts an even greater enigma at the visitor.
“The promontory’s name means Falcon’s Place. Shaped like a triangle with its base to the northwest, its peak rises some eight hundred feet above the city below.
Mr. Sitchin explains the sizes of some of the stones in this fortress, one of them being twenty seven feet high and with a weigh over 300 tons.
“The style and the period are clearly of the same cyclopean construction as that of the Megalithic Age remains in Cuzco, but here they are substantially more massive.”
“…Only the colossal walls remain unscathed, mute witnesses that bespeak an enigmatic age and mysterious builders; for as all studies have shown, the gigantic stone blocks were quarried miles away and had to be transported to the site over mountains, valleys, gorges, and gushing streams.
“How and by whom – and why?
Sacsahuaman fortress’ ramparts.
Sacsahuaman fortress’ ramparts.
Continuing with the building of the big walls of Sacsahuaman:
“Chroniclers from Spanish conquest times, travelers in recent centuries, and contemporary researchers, all arrive at the same conclusion: not the Incas, but enigmatic predecessors with some supernatural powers… But no one even has a theory. Why.
“Garcilaso de la Vega wrote of these fortifications that one had no choice but to believe that they were “erected by magic, by demons and not by men, because of the number and size of the stones placed in the three walls…”
The three walls here is referring to the Falcon’s Place. Mr. Sitchin writes: “separating or protecting this “developed” area from the rest of the promontory are three massive walls that run parallel to each other in a zigzag.
Pictures where the zigzagging Walls can be appreciated (above and below)
“…which it is impossible to believe were cut out of quarries, since the Indians had neither iron nor steel wherewith to extract and shape them. And how they were brought together is a thing equally wondrous, since the Indians had neither carts nor oxen nor ropes wherewith to drag them by manual force. Nor were there level roads over which to transport them; on the contrary, steep mountains and abrupt declivities to overcome.
“Many of the stones,” Garcilaso wrote, “were brought from ten to fifteen leagues, and especially the stone or rather the rock called Saycusa or the Tired Stone, because it never reached the structure… it defies imagination to conceive how so many and so great stones could be so accurately fitted together as scarcely to admit the insertion of a point of a knife between them. Many are indeed so well fitted that the joint can hardly be discovered…”
Mr. Sitchin continues quoting Garcilaso:
“a number of Catholic priests who had suggested that “one cannot conceive how such stones were cut, carried and set in their places… unless by diabolic art.”
“Squire… was enthralled and puzzled by many other features of these stone colossi and of the other rock faces of the area. One such feature was the three gateways through the row of walls, one of which was called the Gate of Viracocha. This gateway was a marvel of engineering sophistication.
“All chroniclers related that this central gateway, like the other two at the wall’s extremes, could be blocked by lowering large, especially fitted stone blocks into the openings. These stone blockers and the mechanisms for their raising and lowering (to open and block the gateways) were removed at some ancient time, but the channels and grooves for them can still be discerned.”
“Behind the line of walls the promontory was the site of an agglomeration of structures, some undoubtedly built in Inca times. That they were built on the remain of earlier structures is probable; that they had nothing to do with a maze of subterranean tunnels is certain…”
“…that the Incas used the promontory for a last stand against the Spaniards is a matter of historical record. That they had put structures atop it is also evident from the remaining masonry. But that they were not the original builders at the site is further evidenced by their recorded inability to transport even one megalithic stone.”
“The attempt-that-failed is reported by Garcilaso in regard to the Tired Stone. According to him, one of the Inca master-masons who wished to enhance his fame decided to haul up the stone from where the original builders had dropped it and use it as his defensive structure.
“More than 20,000 Indians brought this stone up, dragging it with great cables. Their progress was very slow, for the road up which they came is rough and has many steep slopes to climb and descend… On one of these slopes, as a result of carelessness on the part of the bearers who failed to pull evenly, the weigh of the rock proved too much for the strength of those controlling it, and it rolled over down the slope and killed three or four thousand Indians.”
According to this tale, then, the only times the Incas attempted to haul up and lift into place a cyclopean stone – they failed. Obviously, then, they were not the ones who had brought up, cut and shaped lifted into place, with a mortarless fitting, the hundreds of the other cyclopean stones.
“…An earlier traveler, W. Bryford Jones (Four Faces of Peru, 1967), stated in amazement of the massive stone blocks:
“They could only have been moved, I felt, by a race of giants from another world…”
Hanz Helfritz… said of the incredible cyclopean walls of Sacsahuaman: “The impression is created that they have stood there from the very beginning of the world.”
Long before them, Hiran Bingham… did not accept the native tradition tale of the stones having been shaped by “softening” them by rubbing the stones together with a magical herb…
Ancient Ruin Walls of the Old Empire, predating Inca; Phiquillacta, Peru.
Mr. Sitchin asks the question:
“…Who was it that could lift and hold up such a cyclopean stones to rub them against each other?
“…And so we come full circle back to the Andeans legends; only they explain the megalithic builders by claiming that there had been gods and giants in these lands, and an Old Empire, and kingship that began with a divine golden wand.