Chapter 11: A Land of Which the Ingots Come

“There is a land of which the ingots come”

This quote appears in a passage from the Book of Job (Bible) when the man Job holds a conversation with three friends…

Mr. Sitchin begins this chapter by introducing a man from the land of Uz, his name was Job. This he quotes from the Bible when Job, perfect and upright, was put to the test by Satan to the limits of man’s faith in God.

Job enters into a conversation with three friends, who point to him the wonders of the heavens and the earth, among them the “marvels of metals and their sources and the ingenuity of finding them and extracting them from the depths of the earth.” Several verses are quoted from the biblical Book of Job.

“Does man know all these places? Job asked, did man by himself discover all the metallurgical processes? Indeed he challenged his three friends, where does this knowledge of metal and minerals come from?

After his friends reply, Job considers:

“Clearly, Job conceded, all this Knowledge comes from God – the one who had both enriched him and deprived him and who would restore him…

“The inclusion of the marvels of mining in Job’s discourse with his friends may have not been accidental. Though nothing is known of the identity of Job himself or of the land where he had lived, the names of the three friends provide some clues. The first one was Elipaz of Teman, from southern Arabia, his name meant “My God is Pure Gold.” The second one was Bildad of Shuha, a country believed to have been located south of Carcemish, the Hittite city; the land’s name meant “Place of the deep pits.” The third one was Zophar of Na’amah, a place named after the sister of Tubal-Cain, “the master of all smiths” according to the Bible. All three, thus, had come from lands associated with mining.

“…Job’s time is certainly long after Man’s first use of copper by hammering lumps of native copper into useful shapes, and well into the period when metals were obtained by ores that had to be smelted, refined, and cast.

“…Greek poets and philosophers, followed by Roman ones, perpetuated Plato’s division of human history according to four metal ages of Gold, Silver, Bronze (copper), and Iron, in which gold represented the ideal age when Man had been closer to his gods. A biblical division included in Daniel’s vision begins with clay before the list of metals and is a more accurate version of Man’s progress.

Job and his Three Friends (Dore).

Job and his Three Friends (Dore).

“…The early use of copper was therefore of copper-stones, and for that reason many scholars prefer to call the transition from the stone ages to the metal ages not a Copper Age but a Chalcolithic, Copper-stone Age.

“…Believed to have begun in the highlands surrounding the Fertile Crescent of the Near East, this metalworking of copper (and eventually of gold) was possible due to the circumstances particular to them.

Gold and Copper are found in nature in their “natural state,” not only as veins deep within the rocks inside the earth, but also in the form of nuggets and lumps (even dust in the case of gold) that the forces of nature – storms, floods, or the persistent flow of streams and rivers – have shaken loose out of the rocks as they became exposed… Placer mining, most authorities believe that such mining was practiced in the highlands surrounding the Fertile Crescent of Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean eastern coasts as early as the fifth millennium B.C., and certainly before 4000 B.C.

“…It is noteworthy that although both gold and copper were thus available in their natural state, and gold was even more suitable for use because unlike copper it does not oxidize, Near East man of those early millennia did not utilize gold but limited his use to copper. The phenomenon usually goes without explanation; but it is our opinion that the explanation is to be found in the notions familiar from the New World – that gold was a metal belonging to the gods. When gold came into use, at the beginning of the third millennium B.C. or several centuries earlier, it was for enhancing the temples (literally “God’s House”) and for making golden vessels for the service of the gods therein. It was circa 2500 B.C. that gold came into total use, indicating a change of attitudes whose reasons are yet to be explored.

“Sumerian civilization blossomed out circa 3800 B.C. and it is evident from archaeological discoveries that its beginnings, both in northern and southern Mesopotamia, were in place by 4000 B.C.; that is also the time when mining, the processing of ores and metallurgical sophistication, appeared on the scene – a complex and advanced body of knowledge that (as in the case of all other sciences) the ancient peoples said it was given them by the Anunnaki, the gods who had come to Earth from Nibiru. Reviewing the stages in man’s use of metal, L. Aitchison (A History of Metals) noted with astonishment that by 3700 B.C. “every culture in Mesopotamia was based in metalworking”; he concluded with obvious admiration that the metallurgical heights then reached “must inevitably be attributed to the technical genius of the Sumerians.”

“Primitive hammering gave way to the art of casting; and the very complex process known as Cire perdue (“lost wax”), which enabled the casting and making of beautiful and useful objects (such as statuettes of gods and animals or temple utensils) was invented – in Sumer. The progress made there spread worldwide… It reached Egypt some three hundred years later and by 2500 B.C. the entire region between the Nile cataracts and the Indus is metal minded… The Chinese did not become true metallurgists until the Lungshan period, 1800-1500 B.C… In Europe the earliest metal objects are hardly earlier than 2000 B.C.

“Before the Deluge, when the Anunnaki had been mining gold in Southern Africa for their own needs in Nibiru, the smelted ores were shipped in submersible boats to their E.DIN. Sailing through what is now the Arabian Sea and up the Persian Gulf they delivered their cargo for final processing and refining at BAD.TIBIRA, an antediluvial “Pittsburgh.” The name meant “Place established for Metallurgy.”

“…After the Deluge it took nearly seven millennia for the plain (of Tigris-Euphrates) to become dry enough for people to resettle there and launch the Sumerian civilization… The Sumerian metallurgical center was established where Bad-Tibira had once been. The fact that other people in the ancient Near East employed not only Sumerian technologies but also Sumerian terminologies attest to the centrality of Sumer in ancient metallurgy.

“…It is known from records and finds that Sumerian traders reached out to very distant sources for metals, offering in exchange not only Sumer’s staples – grains and woolen garments – but also finished metal products.

“…Sumerian pictographic writing included an impressive array of symbols pertaining to mining, many showing variety of mine shafts according to their structures or minerals mined therein.

“Where all these mines were located – certainly not in Sumer itself – is not always clear, for many place names remain unidentified. But some royal inscriptions indicate far and distant lands. A good example is [a] quote (appearing on book) from Cylinder A, column xvi of Gudea, king of Lagash (third millennium B.C.) in which he recorded the rare materials used in building the E.NINNU temple for his god…

“One of the key passages in the text (which Gudea repeated in Cylinder B, to make sure posterity remembers his pious achievements), is the use of “copper mixed with tin” to build the temple.

“As Gudea has correctly stated, bronze was a “mixture” of copper and tin, not a natural element; it was the product of alloying copper and tin in a furnace, and thus a totally artificial product… Bronze, however, was a technological achievement in other ways too. It could be shaped only by casting, not hammering or annealing; and the tin for it must be obtained from its ores from a process called smelting and recovery, for it is very rarely found in nature in its native state. It must be recovered from an ore called cassiterite. This ore is generally found in alluvial deposits that resulted from the washing out of vein or lode tin from its rocks by natural forces such as heavy rains, floods, and avalanches. The tin is recovered from the cassiterite by smelting, usually in combination with limestone in the first phase of recovery. Even this oversimplified description of the metallurgical processes involved will suffice to make clear that bronze was a metal that required advanced metallurgical know-how at every stage of its processing.

“To add to the problems, it was also a metal difficult to find… Some Sumerian texts mention two “tin mountains” in a far land whose identity is unclear… It has been ascertained that in their search for this vital metal Sumerian traders, via intermediaries in Asia Minor, reached out to tin-ore sources along the Danube, (and other areas of Europe) especially in the provinces known nowadays as Bohemia and Saxony (where the ores have been long exhausted). Forbes has observed that the “finds in the Royal Cemetery of Ur (2500 B.C.) show that Ur smiths… understood the metallurgy of bronze and copper perfectly. Where the tin ore they used came from, is still a mystery.” The mystery, indeed, still persists.

“…For all these reasons, and perhaps because the gods – the Anunnaki – had to teach ancient man how to recover the tin from its ore through smelting, the metal was considered by the Sumerians to be a “divine” metal. Their word for it was AN.NA, literally “Heavenly Stone.” (Likewise, when iron that required ore smelting came into use, it was called AN.BAR, “Heavenly Metal”). Bronze, the alloy of copper and tin was called ZA.BAR, “Gleaming Double Metal.”

“The term for tin, Anna, was borrowed by the Hittites without much change. But in the Akkadian language, the language of the Babylonians and Assyrians and the other Semitic-speaking peoples, the term underwent a slight change to Anaku. The term is usually taken to mean “pure tin” (“Ana-ku“); but we wonder whether the change may have reflected a closer, more intimate association of the metal with the Anunnaki gods, for it has also been found spelled Annakum, meaning that which belongs to or comes from the Anunnaki.

“The term appears in the Bible several times. Ending with a soft kh, it meant a tin-plumbline, as in the prophecy of Amos envisioning the Lord holding an Anakh to illustrate his promise not to deviate anymore from his people Israel… Anak also meant “giant” – a Hebrew rendering (as we have suggested in a previous volume) of the Mesopotamian “Anunnaki.” It is a rendering that raises intriguing association with the legends of both the Old World and the New World attributing this or that feat to the “giants.”

“All these associations of tin with the Anunnaki may have stemmed from their original role in granting mankind this metal and the know-how it required. In fact, the slight but significant modification from the Sumerian AN.NA to the Akkadian Anaku suggests a certain time frame. It is well documented from archaeological discoveries as well as texts, that the great surge into the Bronze Age slowed down circa 2500 B.C. The founder of the Akkadian dynasty, Sargon of Akkad, valued the metal so much that he chosed it rather than gold or silver for commemorating himself, circa 2300 B.C.

Sargon of Akkad.

Sargon of Akkad.

“Metallurgical historians find confirmation of the dwindling supplies of tin in the fact that the percentage of tin in bronze kept being lowered, and in the discovery from texts that most of the new bronze objects were made from old bronze, by melting down earlier objects and mixing the molten alloy with more copper, sometimes reducing the tin content to as little as 2%. Then, for unexplained reasons, the situation changed abruptly. “Only from the Middle Bronze Age onwards, say from 2200 B.C.,” Forbes wrote, “are true bronze forms used and higher percentages of tin appear more regularly, and not only for intricate forms as in the earlier period.”

“Having given mankind bronze with which to launch the great civilization of the fourth millennium B.C., the Anunnaki seemed to come to the rescue again over a millennium later. But while the unknown sources of tin in the first instance may have been Old World ones, the source in the second instance is a complete mystery.

“Here, then, is our daring thought: The new source was the New World.

“If as we believe, New World tin had reached the Old World’s civilization centers, it could have come from one and only one place: Lake Titicaca.

“This not because the name, as we have shown, signifies lake of “the tin stones”; but because this part of Bolivia is still, millennia later, a major source of the world’s tin. Tin, though not rare, is considered a scarce mineral, found only in a few places in commercial quantities.

Among other countries which produce tin, including Bolivia:

“In only two places has tin ore been found in its original lodes: Cornwall and Bolivia. The former has been exhausted; the latter still supplies the world from mountains that seem to be truly “tin mountains” as described in the Sumerian text of Inanna.

“These rich but difficult mining sources, at elevations exceeding 12,000 feet, are concentrated primarily southeast of La Paz, the Bolivian capital, and east of Lake Poopo. The much easier to attain alluvial cassiterite in riverbeds has come from the eastern coastal area of Lake Titicaca.

Cornwall abandoned Tin Mines.

Cornwall abandoned Tin Mines.


Cornwall abandoned Tin Mines.

Cornwall abandoned Tin Mines.


Low-Earth-Orbit View of Lake Poopo, east of which tin is mined, Bolivia.

Low-Earth-Orbit View of Lake Poopo, east of which tin is mined, Bolivia.


La Paz, Capital of Bolivia.

La Paz, Capital of Bolivia.


Aymara Ruins, near Lake Titicaca.

Aymara Ruins, near Lake Titicaca.

“Some of the most reliable research concerning Bolivian-Titicaca tin mining in antiquity was done by David Forbes (Researches on the Mineralogy of South America); conducted more than a century ago… Among amazing findings of tin, gold nuggets (on the banks of Tipuani, a tributary of the Beni river), cassiterite, and nuggets and beads of metallic tin; this meant, convincingly, that whoever worked that area for its gold also knew how to process the tin-ore for its tin… He stated that the “mystery” of the occurrence of the metallic tin in these areas “cannot be explained by purely natural causes.” Near Sorata he found a bronze macehead which on analysis showed the alloy to be over 88% copper and just over 11% tin, “which is quite identical with many of the ancient bronzes” of Europe and the Near East. The sites appeared to be “from extremely ancient periods.”

“Forbes was also surprised to realize that the Indians living around Lake Titicaca, descendants of the Aymara tribes, seemed to know where to find all these intriguing sites.

“The Spanish chronicler Barba (1640) stated that the Spaniards had found both tin an copper mines worked by the Indians; the tin mines were near Lake Titicaca. Posnansky found such pre-Inca mines six miles from Tiahuanacu.

“What sort of metal was the prehistoric man of the Andes seeking in the depths of the mountains in so remote a period?” Posnansky asked. “Was it gold or silver? Certainly not! A metal of much more use caused him to ascend to the highest peaks of the Andean mountain range: it was tin.” And the tin, he explained, was needed to alloy with copper to create: “the noble bronze.” That this was the purpose of man at Tiahuanacu, he stated, was confirmed by the discovery, within a radium of thirty leagues from Tiahuanacu, of many tin mines.

“But did Andean man require this tin to make his own bronze tools? Apparently not. A major study by the leading metallurgist Erland Nordenskiold (The Copper and Bronze Ages in South America) established that neither age had taken place there: There had been in South America no trace of a developed bronze or even copper age, and the reluctant conclusion was that whatever bronze tools had been found, were in fact based on Old World shapes and Old World technologies… “it must be confessed (he continued), that there is considerable similarity between the metal technique of the New World and that of the Old during the Bronze Age.” Significantly, some of the tools included in his examples had handles shaped as the head of the Sumerian goddess Ninti with her symbol of the twin umbilical cutters, later the Mistress of the Sinai mines.

“The history of bronze in the New World is thus linked to the Old World, and the story of tin in the Andes, where New World bronze originated, is inexorably linked to Lake Titicaca. In that, Tiahuanacu had a central role, tied to the minerals surrounding it; otherwise, why was it built there at all?

“The three civilization centers of the Old World arose in fertile river valleys; the Sumerian in the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates, the Egyptian-African along the Nile, that of India along the Indus river. Their base was agriculture; trade, made possible by the rivers, provided the industrial raw materials and enabled the export of grains and finished products. Cities sprung up along the rivers, commerce required written records, trade flourished when society was organized and international relations developed.

Tiahuanaco does not fit that pattern. It gives the appearance of being, as the popular saying goes, “all dressed up with no where to go.” A great metropolis whose culture and art forms influenced almost the whole Andean region – built in the middle of nowhere on the shores of an inhospitable lake at the top of the world, and even if for the minerals, why there? Geography may provide an answer.

“It is customary to begin every description of Lake Titicaca by stating that it is the highest navigable body of water in the world, at an altitude of 13,861 feet. It is a rather large lake, with a surface area of 3,210 square miles. Its depths varies from a thousand feet to a hundred. Elongated in shape, it has a maximum length of 120 miles and a maximum width of 44 miles…

After explaining all the surroundings of the lake, ranges, flowing rivers, shore shapes, including also the town of Puno, the largest lakeside and port of the lake, and the nearby enigmatic ruins of Sillustani, plus the two important islands of the lake: Island of the Moon and Titicaca Island, where it all started and where Manco Capac was given the golden wand with which to found Cuzco and begin Andean Civilization.

Mr. Sitchin continues:

“It is at the southern shore of the lake that the water-filled cavity between all these mountain ranges continues as dry land, creating the valley or plateau on which Tiahuanaco is situated. No where else all around the lake is there such a level plateau. No where else is there a nearby lagoonlike body that connects with the rest of the lake, making waterborne transportation feasible. No where else around the lake is there a site like this, with passes through the mountains in the three landward directions and by water northward.

“And no where else are the prized metals right at hand – gold and silver, and copper and tin. Tiahuanacu was there because it was the best place for it to be for what it was: the metallurgical capital of South America, of the New World.

“All the various spellings that have been employed – Tiahuanacu, Tiahuanaco, Tiwanaku, Tianaku – are only efforts to capture the pronunciation of the name as it has been transmitted and retained by the native population. The original name, we suggest, was TI.ANAKU: the place of Titi and Anaku – TIN CITY.

“Our suggestion that Anaku in the place’s name stems from the Mesopotamian term which meant tin as the metal granted by the Anunnaki invokes a direct link between Tiahuanacu and Lake Titicaca and the ancient Near East. There is evidence to support such a suggestion.

Bronze accompanied the sprouting of the Near East civilizations and came into full metallurgical utilization there by 3500 B.C. But by 2600 B.C. or so, the supplies of tin dwindled and almost petered out. Then, suddenly, fresh supplies appeared circa 2200 B.C.; the Anunnaki, somehow, had stepped in to end the tin crisis and save the very civilizations they had given Mankind. How was that achieved? Let us look at some known facts.

“Circa 2200 B.C., when tin supplies in the Near East improved so abruptly, an enigmatic people appeared in the Near Eastern scene. Their neighbors called them Cassites (“Kosseans” to the Greeks of later times). There is no explanation for the name that scholars know of. But it strikes us the possible source of cassiterite by which tin-ores have been known since antiquity; it implies a recognition of the Cassites as the people who could supply the ore or who had come from where the ore is found.

Pliny, the first century Roman savant, wrote that tin, which the Greeks called “cassiteros,” was more valuable than lead. He stated that is esteemed by the Greeks since the Trojan war (and is indeed mentioned by Homer by the name cassiteros)

Following are guidelines of the main points to give evidence of the link Mr. Sitchin mentions above, however, in his book a few pages are dedicated to explain the details. In Mr. Sitchin’s words:

The Early Mediterranean Greeks came into contact with the Hittites (or were, perhaps, Indo-European cousins of theirs).

The islands that the Greeks call Cassiterites, “in consequence of their abundance of tin,” he (Pliny) wrote, are out in the Atlantic facing the cape called The End of Earth; “they are the six Islands of the Gods, which some people have designated as the Isles of Bliss.” It is an intriguing statement, for if the Hittites from whom the Greeks had learned all that spoke of the gods as being the Anunnaki, we have here a term with all the connotations of Anaku.

An illustration of Pliny’s HISTORIA NATURALIS.

An illustration of Pliny’s HISTORIA NATURALIS.


The Trojan War.

The Trojan War.


HOMER

HOMER

“The reference, however, is usually taken to mean the Scilly Islands off Cornwall, especially since the Phoenicians are known to have reached that part of the British Isles for its tin in the first millennium B.C.; the Prophet Ezequiel, their contemporary, specifically mentions tin as one of the metals that the Phoenicians of Tyre had imported in their seagoing vessels…

The Phoenicians (after the Assyrians ended the independence of the Phoenician city-states in the eastern Mediterranean in the ninth century B.C.), established a new center, Carthage… in the western Mediterranean in North Africa… they circumnavigated Africa (in 600 B.C.) in search of gold for the Egyptian king Necho… and in 425 B.C. under a leader named Hanno they sailed around west Africa.

Modern Town, and a French boat being refloated after running aground, Scilly Islands, off Cornwall.

Modern Town, and a French boat being refloated after running aground, Scilly Islands, off Cornwall.


Image
Painting of the ancient Port of Tyre.

Painting of the ancient Port of Tyre.


Painting of the ancient Port of Tyre.

Painting of the ancient Port of Tyre.


From Ancient Carthage, Tunisia today.

From Ancient Carthage, Tunisia today.


From Ancient Carthage, Tunisia today.

From Ancient Carthage, Tunisia today.

The evidence of the presence of Mediterranean artifacts is more compelling in South America than in North America.

“One of the few academicians who has stuck his neck out in this direction is Professor Cyrus E. Gordon (Before Columbus and Riddles in History)… he gave considerable credence to the so-called Paraiba Inscription that turned up in that north Brazilian site in 1872. Its disappearance soon thereafter and the vague circumstances of its discovery have induced most scholars to consider it a forgery, especially as its acceptance as authentic would undermine the notion that there had been no contacts between the Old and New Worlds.

“…It is certain that the Cassites were not Britishers in disguise. Near Eastern records place them to the East of Sumer, in what is nowadays Iran. They were related to the Hittites of Asia Minor as well as to the Hurrians (the biblical Horites, “People of the Shafts”) who acted as a geographical and cultural link between Sumer in Southern Mesopotamia and the Indo-European peoples to the north. They and their predecessors, including the Sumerians, could have reached South America by sailing westward, around the tip of Africa and across the Atlantic to Brazil; or eastward, around the tip of Indochina and the island archipelago and across the Pacific to Ecuador and Peru. Each route would have required navigational feats and maps of sea routes.

Such maps, it must be concluded did exist. Mr. Sitchin at this point explains the times of Columbus, then he continues:

“Indeed, by now a surprisingly large number of maps from pre-Columbian times have been found… The best known of these improbable yet extant maps is that of Piri Re’is, a Turkish admiral, bearing a Moslem date equivalent to A.D. 1513… But where did he obtain his data? C.H. Hapgood, in one of the best studies of the Piri Re’is map and its antecedents, has concluded that “the evidence presented by the ancient maps appears to suggest the existence in remote times… of a true civilization of an advanced kind”; more advanced than Greece or Rome, and in nautical sciences ahead of eighteen-century Europe. He recognized that before them all was the Mesopotamian civilization, extending back at least 6,000 years; but certain features on the maps, such as Antarctica, made him wonder who had preceded the Mesopotamians.

“While most studies of these maps concentrate on their Atlantic features, the studies by Hapgood and his team established that the Piri Re’is map also depicts correctly the Andean mountains, the rivers including the Amazon that flow from them eastward, and the South American Pacific coast from about 4 degrees south to about 40 degrees south – ie., from Ecuador to Peru to midway in Chile. Amazingly, the team found that “the drawing of the mountains indicates that they were observed from the sea, from coastwise shipping, and not imagined.” The coasts were drawn in such detail that the Paracas Peninsula could be discerned.

Stuart Piggot (Aux portes de l’histoire) was one of the first to note that that stretch of Pacific coast of South America also appeared on the European copies of Ptolemy’s Map of the World. It was shown, however, not as a continent beyond a vast ocean, but as a Tierra Mitica, mythical land, extending from the tip of southern China beyond a peninsula called Quersoneso de Oro, the Peninsula of Gold, all the way southward to a continent we now call Antarctica.

“This observation prompted the noted South American archaeologist D.E. Ibarra Grasso to launch an extensive study of ancient maps; his conclusions were published in his La Representacion de America en mapas Romanos de tiempos de Cristo. As other researchers he concluded that the European maps leading to the Age of Discovery were based on the work of Ptolemy, which in turn was based on the cartography and geography of Marinus of Tyre and even earlier information.

Ibarra Grasso’s study shows convincingly that the outline of the western coast of this “appendix” called Tierra Mitica conforms to the shape of the western coast of South America where it juts out into the Pacific. This is where legends placed the prehistoric landings all along!

“The European copies of Ptolemy’s maps included a name for a place in the midst of that mythical land, Cattigara; the location, Ibarra Grasso wrote, is “where in fact Lambayeque is situated, the principal center of gold metallurgy in the whole American continent.” Not surprisingly, it is where Chavin the Huantar, the prehistoric processing center, was established, where the African Olmecs, the bearded Semites, and the Indo-Europeans had met.

“Did the Cassites also land there, or in the Bay of Paracas, nearer Tiahuanaco?

A Town in Lambayeque, today.

A Town in Lambayeque, today.


Ruins in Northern Peru, Lambayeque.

Ruins in Northern Peru, Lambayeque.


Areal View of Paracas Peninsula, Peru.

Arial View of Paracas Peninsula, Peru.


Arial View of Paracas Peninsula, Peru.

Arial View of Paracas Peninsula, Peru.

“The Cassites have left a rich legacy of metallurgical craftsmanship spanning the third and second millennia B.C… They decorated their artifacts, as often as not, with images of their gods and of their legendary heroes, among whom a favorite was that of Gilgamesh wrestling with the lions.

“Incredibly, we find identical themes and artistic forms in the Andes… Who ever had come from the Old World to tell and depict the tale here, did so also at Tiahuanacu: among the bronze objects found there, a bronze plaque, as at Luristan of the Cassites, clearly depicted the Near Eastern hero in the same scene.

“At Chavin de Huantar the Indo-European deity was the Bull God, a mythical animal for the other sculptors there. But although the bull was not present in South America until some were brought by the Spaniards, scholars have been surprised that some Indian communities near Puno on Lake Titicaca and even at Pucara (a legendary stop on the route of Viracocha from the lake to Cuzco) worship the bull in ceremonies that originated in pre-Hispanic times…

Statue of the Hindu Bull God, "Nandi"; in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Although this is not an item mentioned by Zecahria Sitchin in his book at this point, the bull was indeed venerated in several areas in various ways.

Statue of the Hindu Bull God, “Nandi”; in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Although this is not an item mentioned by Zecahria Sitchin in his book at this point, the bull was indeed venerated in several areas in various ways.

At Tiahuanacu and the southern Andes, this god was depicted with a lightning bolt and holding a metal wand – an image carved on stone, depicted on ceramics and on textiles.

It is a combination of symbols well known from the ancient Near East, where the god called Ramman (“The Thunderer”) by the Babylonians and Assyrians, Hadad (“Rolling Echo”) by the West Semites, and Teshub (“Wind Blower”) by the Hittites and Cassites, was depicted standing upon a bull, his cult animal, holding the metal tool in one hand and a forked lightning in the other.

“The Sumerians, where the Old World pantheons originated, called this god Adad or ISH.KUR (“He of the Far Mountains”), and depicted him with the metal tool and forked lightning. One of the epithets for him was ZABAR DIB.BA – “He who bronze obtains and divides.” An illuminating clue.

“Was he not Rimac of the southern coasts of Peru, Viracocha of the Andean highlands, whose image with the metal tool and forked lightning appeared all over, whose symbol of a lightning appeared by itself in many monuments? He may have even been shown standing upon a bull in a stone carving, found southwest of Lake Titicaca by Ribero and von Tschudi.

“…Some time in those remote days Ishkur/Teshub/Viracocha placed his symbol of the forked lightning, for all to see from the air and from the ocean on a mountainside on the Bay of Paracas, the very bay the Hapgood team identified on the Piri Re’is map, the bay that was probably the anchorage harbor for the ships carrying the tin and bronze of Tiahuanacu to the Old World.

It was a symbol proclaiming to gods and men alike:

“THIS IS THE REALM OF THE STORM GOD!”

Paracas Peninsula, Peru.

Paracas Peninsula, Peru.


Paracas Peninsula, Peru.

Paracas Peninsula, Peru.


Paracas Peninsula, Peru.

Paracas Peninsula, Peru.


Part of the Andean Ranges, "even a vulture knows not the way thereto, and a falcon’s eye has not discerned it."

Part of the Andean Ranges, “even a vulture knows not the way thereto, and a falcon’s eye has not discerned it.”

“For as the Book of Job had stated, there was indeed a land of which the ingots come, whose underground is upheavaled as with fire… a place so high among the peaks that “even a vulture knows not the way thereto, and a falcon’s eye has not discerned it.” It was there that the god who provided the vital metals “set his hands to the granite… overturned mountains at their roots… cut galleries through the rocks.”

Continue to Chapter 12: Gods of the Golden Tears