…Was it a sad commentary on the history of warfare that the messianic Essenes envisioned the Final War of Men as one in which the Company of the Divine would join the Congregation of the Mortals, and the "war cries of gods and men" would mingle on the battlefield?
…Not at all. What The War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness had envisioned was simply that human warfare shall end just as it had begun: with gods and men fighting side by side.
…Incredible as it may sound, a document exists that describes the first war in which the gods involved mortal men. It is an inscription on the walls of the great temple at Edfu, an ancient Egyptian holy city that was dedicated to the god Horus.
…The inscription, remarkable for its geographical accuracy, begins with an exact date – a date not in the affairs of men but of the gods. It deals with events when the gods themselves, long before the Pharaohs, reigned over Egypt:
"In the year 363 His Majesty, Ra, the Holy One, the Falcon of the Horizon, the Immortal Who For Ever Lives, was in the land of Khenn. He was accompanied by his warriors, for the enemies had conspired against their lord in the district which has been called Ua-Ua since that day…"
…With a few words the ancient scribe succeeded in drawing the background as well as setting the stage for the unusual war that was about to unfold. We gather at once that the battle was brought on by a conspiracy by certain "enemies" of the gods Ra and Horus, to take away the "Luminous Crown of Lordship" unto themselves. This, obviously, could have been done only by some other god or gods. To forestall the conspiracy Ra – "accompanied by his warriors" – went in his boat to a district where Horus had set up his headquarters.
…The "boat" of Ra, as is known from many other texts, was a Celestial Boat in which Ra could soar to the farthest heavens. In this instance Ra used it to land far away from any waters, "in the western part" of the district of Ua-Ua. There he landed east of the "Throne Place" of Horus. And Horus came to greet his forefather and respond to him that "the enemy" was gathering its forces.
…Then Ra, the Holy One, the Falcon of the Horizon, said unto Horus, the Winged Measurer: "Lofty issue of Ra, my begotten: Go quickly, knock down the enemy whom you have seen."
…So instructed, Horus took off in the Winged Disk to search for the enemy from the skies.
…From the skies, flying in the Winged Disk, Horus spotted the enemy forces and unleashed upon them a "storm" that could neither be seen nor heard, yet it brought instantaneous death.
…Horus then flew back to the boat of Ra in the Winged Disk, "which shined in many colours."
…And Thoth (the god of magical crafts) said:
"Oh Lord of the Gods! The Winged Measurer has returned in the great Winged Disk, shining with many colours…"
…"Therefore he is named from that day on: "The Winged Measurer." And they named after Horus the Winged Measurer, the city of Hut "Behutet," from that day on.
…Traditions held that Edfu was where Horus established a divine metal foundry, at which unique weapons made of "divine iron" were forged. It was there, too, that Horus trained an army of mesniu – "Metal People." They were depicted on the walls of the temple of Edfu as men with shaven heads, wearing a short tunic and a deep collar, carrying weapons in each hand. A depiction of an unidentified, harpoonlike weapon was included in the hieroglyphic words for "divine iron" and "metal people."
…The mesniu were, according to Egyptian traditions, the first men ever to have been armed by the gods with weapons made of metal. They also were, as we shall soon gather from the unfolding tale, the first men to have been enlisted by a god to fight in the wars between the gods.
…The initial victories apparently also strengthened the alliance of the gods, for we are told that the Asiatic goddess Ishtar (the Egyptian texts call her by her Canaanite name Ashtoreth) had joined the group. Hovering in the sky, Horus called on Ra to scout the land below.
…Since the enemies on the land were hidden, Ra had an idea: "And Ra said unto the gods accompanying him: ‘Let us guide our vessel towards the water, for the enemy lies in the land.’ And they called the waters ‘The Traveled Waters’ from that day on." While Ra could utilize the amphibious capabilities of his vehicle, Horus was in need of a waterborne vessel. So they gave him a boat, "and called it Mak-A (Great Protector) unto this day."
It was then that the first battle involving mortal men ensued.
…It was then that the Winged Disk was adopted as the emblem of Horus victorious:
"It is from that day that the metal emblems of Horus have existed. It was Horus who had fashioned as his emblem the Winged Disk, placing it upon the forepart of the boat of Ra.
The goddess of the north and the goddess of the south, represented as two serpents, he placed alongside.
…And Horus stood behind the emblem, upon the boat of Ra, the Divine Iron and the chain in his had.
…In spite of the proclamation of Horus by Thoth as a bringer of peace, peace was not yet in hand.
…While the first aerial battle broke through the defenses separating Egypt from Nubia at Syene (Aswan), the ensuing battles on land and water secured for Horus the bend of the Nile, from Thebes to Dendera. There great temples and royal sites proliferated in days to come. Now the way was open into the heartland of Egypt… A series of brief, but fierce, encounters then ensued; the place names – well established in ancient Egyptian geography – indicate that the attacking gods reached the area of lakes that had stretched in antiquity from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean (some of which still remain).
…The Edfu temple inscription now shifts to a new panel, for indeed there began a new chapter in that War of the Gods. The enemies that had managed to escape "directed themselves by the Lake of the North, setting themselves toward the Mediterranean, which they desired to reach by sailing through the water district. But the god smote their hearts (with fear), and when they reached the middle of the waters as they fled, they directed themselves from the western lake to the waters which connect with the lakes of the district Mer, in order to join themselves there with the enemies who were the Land of Seth."
…These verses provide not only geographical information; they also identify "the enemies" for the first time.
It was when Horus, in hot pursuit, crossed the waters into the territory of Seth that:
…It was then, according to the inscription in the great temple of Edfu, that Seth was so enraged that he faced Horus for a series of battles – on the ground and in the air – for god-to-god combat. Of this combat there have been found several versions… What is interesting at this point is the fact brought out by E.A. Wallis Budge in The Gods of the Egyptians: that in the first involvement of men in the Wars of the Gods, it was the arming of mankind with the Divine Iron that brought victory to Horus:
"It is pretty clear that he owed his success chiefly to the superiority of the weapons with which he and his men were armed, and to the material of which they were made."
…"Thus according to Egyptian writings, did man learn to lift sword against man.
…When all the fighting was over, Ra expressed satisfaction with the works of "these Metal People of Horus," and he decreed that henceforth they "shall dwell in sanctuaries" and shall be served with libations and offerings "as their reward, because they have slain the enemies of the god Horus." They were settled at Edfu, the Upper Egypt capital of Horus, and in This (Tanis in Greek, the biblical Zo’an), the Lower Egypt capital of the god. In time they outgrew their purely military role and attained the title Shamsu-Hor ("Attendants of Horus"), serving as his human aides and emissaries.
…The inscriptions on the temple walls at Edfu, it has been established, was a copy of a text that was known to the Egyptian scribes from earlier sources but when and by whom the original text had been composed, no one can really tell…
…As with all Egyptian historical texts, this one, too, begins with a date: "In the year 363." Such dates always indicate the year in the reign of the Pharaoh to whom the event pertains: each Pharaoh had his first year, second year, and so on. The text in question, however, deals not with the affair of kings but with divine matters – a war among the gods. The text thus relates events that had happened in the "year 363" in the reign of certain gods and takes us back to the early times when gods, not men, ruled over Egypt.
…Thus there indeed had been such a time, Egyptian traditions left no doubt. The Greek historian Herodotus (fifth century B.C.), on his extensive visit to Egypt, was given by the priests details of the Pharaonic dynasties and reigns. "The priests," he wrote, "said that Men (Menes in Greek) was the first king of Egypt, and that it was he who raised the dyke which protects Memphis from the inundations of the Nile," diverted the river, and proceeded to build Memphis on the reclaimed land. "Besides these works he also," the priests said, "built the temple of Vulcan, which stands within the city, a vast edifice, very worthy of mention."
…Next day read me from a papyrus the names of 330 monarchs who were his successors upon the throne. In this number of successors there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen who was a native, all the rest were kings and Egyptians."
…The priests then showed Herodotus rows of statues representing the successive Pharaohs and related to him various details pertaining to some of those kings and their claims to divine ancestry.
…"The beings represented by these images were very far indeed from being gods," Herodotus commented; "however," he went on to say:
"In times preceding them it was otherwise: Then Egypt had gods for its rulers, who dwelt upon the Earth with men, one of them being always supreme above the rest. The last of this was Horus, the son of Osiris, whom the Greeks called Apollo. He deposed Typhon, and ruled over Egypt as its last god-king."
…Manetho, (an Egyptian priest) (according to Flavius Josephus) was the first known historian to have divided the Egyptian rulers into dynasties – a practice continued to this day. His Kings List – names, lengths of reign, order of succession, and some other pertinent information – has been mainly preserved through the writings of Julius Africanus and Eusebius Caesarea (in the third and fourth centuries A.D.). These and other versions based on Manetho agree that he listed as the first ruler of this first dynasty of Pharaohs the king Men (Menes in Greek) – the very same king that Herodotus reported, based on his own investigations in Egypt.
…This fact has since been confirmed by modern discoveries, such as the Tablets of Abydos in which the Pharaoh Seti I, accompanied by his son, Ramses II, listed the names of seventy-five of his predecessors. The first one to be named is Mena.
…If Herodotus is correct in regard to the dynasties of Egyptian Pharaohs, could he also have been right in regard to a "preceding time" when "Egypt had gods for its rulers"?
…Manetho, we find, had agreed with Herodotus also on that matter. The dynasties of the Pharaohs, he wrote, were preceded by four other dynasties – two of gods, one of demigods, and a transitional dynasty.
Seven gods completing 12,300 years as Manetho indicated:
…Ptah, Ra, Shu, Geb, Osiris, Seth, Horus = 12,300 years.
Mr. Sitchin presents a table with different amount of years for each god.
…A century and a half of archaeological discoveries and the deciphering of the hieroglyphic writing have convinced scholars that the Pharaonic dynasties probably began in Egypt circa 3100 B.C.; indeed, under a ruler whose hieroglyph, reads Men. He united Upper and Lower Egypt and established his capital at a new city called Men-Neter ("The Beauty of Men") – Memphis in Greek.
…A major archaeological document dealing with Egyptian kingship, the so-called Turin Papyrus, begins with a dynasty of gods that list Ra, Geb, Osiris, Seth, and Horus, then Thoth, Maat, and others, and assigns to Horus – just as Manetho did – a reign of 300 years. This papyrus, which dates from the time of Ramses II, lists after the divine rulers thirty-eight semidivine rulers: Nineteen Chiefs of the White Wall and nineteen Venerables of the North." Between them and Menes, the Turin Papyrus states, there ruled human kings under the patronage of Horus, their epithet was Shamsu-Hor!
…Addressing the Royal Society of Literature in London in 1843, the curator of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, Dr. Samuel Birch, announced that he had counted on the papyrus and its fragments a total of 330 names – a number that "coincided with the 330 kings mentioned by Herodotus.
…The Egyptians believed that "a very great god who came forth in the earliest times" arrived in the land and found it lying under water and mud. He undertook great works of dyking and land reclamation, literally raising Egypt out of the waters – thus explaining Egypt’s nickname "The Raised Land." This olden god was named Ptah – a "God of Heaven and Earth." He was considered to be a great engineer and artificer.
…Ptah and the other gods were called, in Egyptian, Ntr – "Guardian, Watcher." They had come to Egypt, the Egyptians wrote, from Ta-Ur, the "Far/Foreign Land," whose name Ur meant "olden" but could have also been the actual place name – a place well known from Mesopotamian and biblical records: the ancient city of Ur in southern Mesopotamia. And the straits of the Red Sea, which connected Mesopotamia and Egypt, were called Ta-Neter, the "Place of the Gods," the passage by which they had come to Egypt.
…In time – after 9,000 years, according to Manetho – Ra, a son of Ptah, became the ruler over Egypt. His name, too, had no meaning in Egyptian, but because Ra was associated with a bright celestial body, scholars assumed that Ra meant "bright." We do know with greater certainty that one of his nicknames, Tem, had the Semitic connotation "the Complete, the Pure One."
…It was believed by the Egyptians that Ra, too, had come to Earth from the "Planet of Millions of Years" in a Celestial Barge, the conical upper part of which, called Ben-Ben ("Pyramidion Bird"), was later on preserved in a specially built shrine in the sacred city Anu (the biblical On, which is better known by its Greek name Heliopolis).
…The first divine couple to rule when Ra tired of staying in Egypt were his own children, the male Shu ("Dryness") and the female Tefnut ("Moisture"), their main task, according to Egyptian tales, was to help Ra control the skies over the Earth.
…Shu and Tefnut set the example for mortal Pharaohs in later times: the king selected his own half-sister as his royal spouse. They were followed on the divine throne – as both legends and Manetho informs us – by their children, again a brother-sister couple: Geb ("Who piles up the Earth") and Nut ("The Stretched-out Firmament").
…Geb and Nut turned over the direct rule of Egypt to their four children: Asar ("The All-Seeing"), whom the Greeks called Osiris, and his sister-wife Ast, better known as Isis; and Seth and his wife Nephtys (Nebt-Hat, "Lady of the House"), the sister of Isis. It was with these gods, who were truly gods of Egypt, that the Egyptian tales most concerned themselves, but in depicting them Seth was never shown without his animal disguise: his face was never seen, and the meaning of his name still defies Egyptologists, even if it is identical to the name given in the Bible to Adam and Eve’s third son.
…Osiris was given the northern lowlands (Lower Egypt), and Seth was given the southern, mountainous part (Upper Egypt). How long this arrangement lasted we can only guess from Manetho’s chronicles; but it is certain that Seth was not satisfied with the divisions of sovereignty and resorted to various schemes to gain control over the whole of Egypt.
Mr. Sitchin explains at this point in his book, the various hereditary rules for ascending to the throne having, it seems, the great Ra himself fathering some of Nut’s children instead of Geb, but Seth was definitely a son of Geb and Geb’s half sister Nut, so in fact he was the legitimate inheritor, even if Osiris was fathered by the great Ra. And this was Seth’s claim.
Mr. Sitchin also gives The Book of the Dead, as a reference where one may find all the legends of this period of time, when Seth killed Osiris, his brother.
…Since all seemed to believe that Osiris had perished without leaving a heir, Seth saw this as his chance to obtain a legitimate heir by forcing Isis to espouse him. He kidnapped her and held her prisoner until she consented. But with the aid of the god Thoth, Isis managed to escape. A version recorded on the so-called Metternich Stela, composed as a tale by Isis in her own words, describes her escape in the night and her adventures until she reached the swamps where Horus was hidden. She found Horus dying from a scorpion’s sting. One can infer from the text that it was word of his son’s dying that prompted her escape. The people who lived in the swamps came out at her cries but were helpless to be of any aid. Then help came from a spacecraft:
Then Isis sent forth a cry to heaven and addressed her appeal to the Boat of Millions of Years.
…And the Celestial Disk stood still, and moved not from the place it was. And Thoth came down, and he was provided with magical powers, and possessed the great power which made the word become indeed. And he said:
Oh Isis, thou goddess, thou glorious one, who has knowledge of the mouth; behold, no evil shall come upon the child Horus, for his protection cometh from the Boat of Ra.
I have come this day in the Boat of the Celestial Disk, from the place where it was yesterday. When the night cometh, this Light shall drive away [the poison] for the healing of Horus…
I have come from the skies to save the child for his mother.
…Revived from death by the artful Thoth, some texts say immunized forever as a result of Thoth’s treatment, Horus grew up as Netch-atef, "Avenger of his Father."
Eventually, Horus appeared before the Council of the Gods to claim the throne of Osiris.
…According to the Edfu temple inscription, the first face-to-face battle between Horus and Seth took place a the "Lake of the Gods," thereafter known as the "Lake of Battle." Horus managed to hit Seth with his Divine Lance; when Seth fell down, Horus captured him and brought him before Ra… who decided that Isis and Horus could do with Seth and the other captured "conspirators" as they pleased.
Although there are several versions of what ensued, the fact is that Seth managed to escape.
…After his escape Seth at first hid in a subterranean tunnel. After a lull of six days, a series of aerial battle ensued. Horus took to the air in a Nar (a "Fiery Pillar"), which was depicted as an elongated, cylindrical vessel equipped with fins or short wings. Its bulkhead contained two "eyes," which kept changing color from blue to red and back to blue; from the rear, jetlike trails were shown; from the front, the contraption spewed out rays.
…(The Egyptian texts, all written by the followers of Horus, contain no descriptions of Seth’s aerial vehicle).
…The texts describe a battle that ranged far and wide, and the first to be hit was Horus – struck by a bolt of light from Seth’s vehicle. The Nar lost one of its "eyes," and Horus continued the fight from the Winged Disk of Ra. From out of this he shot a "harpoon" at Seth, now Seth was hit, and lost his testicles. . .
…Dwelling on the nature of the weapon, W. Max Muller wrote in Egyptian Mythology that it had "a strange, practically impossible head" and was nicknamed in the hieroglyphic texts "the weapon of thirty." As ancient depictions reveal, "the harpoon" was indeed an ingenious three-in-one rocket: as the first, larger missile was fired, the way was opened for the two smaller missiles to be launched.
…The nickname ("Weapon of Thirty") suggests that the missiles were what we nowadays call Multiple Warhead Missiles, each missile holding ten warheads.
…Through sheer coincidence, but probably because similar circumstance result in similar connotations, the McDonnell Douglas Corporation of St. Louis, Missouri, has named its newly developed naval guided missile "The Harpoon."
…The great gods called a truce and once again summoned the adversaries before the Council of the Gods. We glean details from the deliberations from a text inscribed on a stone column by the Pharaoh Shabako (eighth century B.C.), who stated that the text is a copy made from a very old leather scroll, "devoured by worms," which was found buried in the great temple of Ptah at Memphis. The Council, at first, redivided Egypt between Horus and Seth, along the lines of the divisions at the time of Osiris, but Geb had second thoughts and upset the decision, for he was concerned with the question of continuity: Who would, "open the body" to successive generations? Seth, having lost his testicles, could no longer have offspring… And so Geb, "Lord Earth, gave as a heritage to Horus" the whole of Egypt. To Seth a dominion away from Egypt was to be given; henceforth, he was deemed by the Egyptians to have become an Asiatic deity.
…The Council of the Gods accepted the recommendations unanimously. Its final action is thus described in the Papyrus of Hunefer:
Horus is triumphant in the presence of the whole company of the gods. The sovereignty over the world hath been given unto him, and his dominion is in the uttermost parts of Earth.
…The throne of the god Geb had been adjudged unto him, along with the rank which hath been founded by the god Shu.
…The legitimation, the Papyrus went to say:
Hath been formalized by decrees [lodged] in the Chamber of Records; It hath been inscribed upon a metal tablet according to the commandments of thy father Ptah…
Gods celestial and gods terrestrial transfer themselves to the services of thy son Horus. They follow him to the Hall of Decrees. He shall lord over them.