…Somewhere in the vaults of the British Museum there is stashed away a clay tablet which was found at Sippar, the "cult center" of Shamash in Mesopotamia. It shows him seated on a throne, under a canopy whose pillar is shaped as a date palm. A king and his son are introduced to Shamash by another deity. In front of the seated god there is mounted upon a pedestal a large emblem of a ray-emitting planet. The inscriptions involve the god Sin (father of Shamash), Shamash himself and his sister Ishtar.
…The theme of the scene – the introduction of kings or priests to a major deity – is a familiar one, and poses no problems. What is unique and puzzling in this depiction are the two gods (almost superimposed upon one another) who, from somewhere outside of where the introduction is taking place, hold (with two pair of hands) two cords leading to the celestial emblem.
…Who are the two Divine Cordholders? What is their function? Are they identically situated, and if so, why do they hold or pull two cords, and not just one? Where are they? What is their connection with Shamash?
…Sippar, scholars know, was the seat of the High Court of Sumer, Shamash was consequently the ultimate lawgiver. Hammurabi, the Babylonian king, famous for his law code, depicted himself receiving the law from an enthroned Shamash. Was the scene with the two Divine Cordholders also connected with lawgiving? In spite of all the speculation, no one so far has come up with an answer.
…The solution, we believe, has been available all along in the very same British Museum – not among its "Assyrian" exhibits, however, but in its Egyptian Department. In a room separate from the mummies and the other remains of the dead and their tombs, there are exhibited pages from the various papyri inscribed with the Book of the Dead. And the answer is right there, for all to see.
…It is a page from the Papyrus of Queen Nejnet and the drawing illustrates the final stage of the Pharaoh’s journey in the Duat. The twelve gods who pulled his barge through the subterranean corridors have brought him into the last corridor, the Place of Ascending. There, the "Red Eye of Horus" was waiting. Then, shed of his earthly clothing, the Pharaoh was to ascend heavenward, his Translation spelled out by the beetle hieroglyph ("Rebirth"). Gods standing in two groups pray for his successful arrival at the Imperishable Star.
…And unmistakably, there in the Egyptian depiction, are two Divine Cordholders!
…They are clearly located outside of the subterranean corridor. Moreover, each side manned by a Cordholder is marked by an omphalos resting upon a platform. And, as the action imparted by the drawing shows, the two divine aides are not simply holding the cords, but are engaged in measuring.
…The discovery should not surprise: have not the verses of the Book of the Dead described how the journeying Pharaoh encounters the gods "who hold the rope in the Duat," and the gods "who hold the measuring cord"?
…A clue in the Book of Enoch now comes to mind. There, it will be recalled, it is related that as he was taken by an angel to visit the earthly paradise in the west, Enoch "saw in those days how long cords were given to angels who took to themselves wings, and they went towards the north." In reply to Enoch’s question, his guiding angel explained: "They have gone off to measure… they shall bring the measure of the Righteous to the Righteous… all these measures shall reveal the secrets of the Earth."
…The words of the Prophet Habakuk thunder in ours ears…:
The Lord from South shall come,
The Holy One from Mount Paran.
Covered are the heavens with his halo,
His splendor fills the Earth,
His brilliance is like light.
His rays shine forth
from where his power is concealed.
The Word goes before him,
sparks emanate from below.
He pauses to measure the Earth.
He is seen, and the nations tremble.
…Was the measuring of Earth and its "secrets" then related to the powered flight of the gods in Earth’s skies? The Ugaritic texts add a clue as they tell us that, from the peak of Zaphon, Ba’al "a cord strong and supple stretches out, heavenwards (and) to the Seat of Kadesh."
…Whenever these texts report a message from one god to another, the verse begins with the word Hut. Scholars assume that it was a kind of a calling prefix, a kind of "Are you ready to hear me?" But the term could literally mean in the Semitic languages "cord, rope." Scientifically, the term Hut in Egyptian also means "to extend, to stretch out." Heinrich Brugsch, commenting on an Egyptian text dealing with the battles of Horus (Die Sage von der geflugten Sonnenscheibe) pointed out that Hut was also a place name – the abode of the Winged Extenders, as well as the name of the mountain which Horus was imprisoned by Seth.
…And then we have the depiction from Sippar. It is not puzzling if we recall that in the pre-Diluvial times, when Sumer was the Land of the Gods, Sippar was the Spaceport of the Anunnaki, and Shamash its Commander. Thus viewed, the role of the Divine Measurers will become clear: their cords measured out the path to the Spaceport.
…With the aid of photographs of Earth from spacecraft of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), we can view the Near East as the Anunnaki had seen it from their own craft. What vantage points could they choose from which to mark out a triangular landing corridor? Close at hand, to the southeast, rose granite peaks of southern Sinai. Amid the granite core rose the highest peak (now called Mount St. Katherine). It could serve as a natural beacon to outline the southeastern line. But where was the counterpoint in the northwest, on which the northern line of the triangle could be anchored?
…Aboard the Shuttlecraft, the Surveyor – a "Divine Measurer" – glanced at the earth panorama below, then studied his maps again. In the far distance, beyond Baalbek, there loomed the twin-peaked Ararat. He drew a straight line from Ararat through Baalbek, extending it all the way into Egypt.
…He took his compass. With Baalbek as the focal point, he drew an arc through the highest peak of the Sinai peninsula. Where it intersected the Ararat-Baalbek line, he made a cross within a circle. Then he drew two lines of equal length, one connecting Baalbek with the peak in Sinai, the other with the site marked by the cross.
‘This,’ he said, ‘will be our triangular Landing Corridor, to lead us straight to Baalbek.’
‘But sir,’ one of those aboard said, ‘there is nothing there, where you have made the cross – nothing that can serve as a guiding beacon!’
‘We will have to erect there a pyramid,’ the commander said.
And they flew on, to report their decision.
The Triangular Landing Corridor, leading to Baalbek.
…Had such conversation indeed had taken place aboard a shuttlecraft of the Anunnaki? We, of course, shall never know (unless a tablet is someday found recording the event); we have merely dramatized some astounding but undeniable facts:
- The unique platform at Baalbek has been there from bygone days, and it is still there intact in its enigmatic immensity.
- Mount St. Katherine is still there, rising as the highest peak of the Sinai peninsula, hallowed since ancient days, enveloped (together with the twin-peaked neighbor, Mount Mussa) in legends of gods and angels.
- The Great Pyramid of Giza, with its two companions and the unique Sphinx, is situated precisely on the extended Ararat-Baalbek line, and
- The distance from Baalbek to Mount St. Katherine and to the Great Pyramid of Giza is exactly the same.
Babylonian Kings. Shalmanezer, above, meeting a Babylonian King.
Hammurabi, receiving the Law from an enthroned Shamash.
In search of a Spaceport.
Mount Katherine, the tallest in the Sinai group was also chosen as a beacon, Egypt today.
From their Shuttlecraft, the astronauts from Nibiru, chose Mount Ararat as a beacon(Turkey today).
Baalbek was chosen to build the platform for the SpacePort. Lebanon today.
And to form the perfect triangulation for the landing corridor, the Pyramid(s) were built.
The Great Sphinx. Giza, Egypt.
…This, let us add at once, is only part of the amazing grid which – as we shall show – was laid out by the Anunnaki in connection with their post-Diluvial Spaceport. Therefore, whether or not the conversation had taken place aboard a shuttlecraft, we are pretty certain that that is how the pyramids came to be in Egypt.
…There are many pyramids and pyramidal structures in Egypt, dotting the landscape from where the Nile breaks out into its delta in the north, all the way south to (and into) Nubia.
…These, in turn, consist of two distinct groups: the pyramids clearly identified with rulers of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties (such as Unash, Teti, Pepi, which are elaborately decorated and inscribed with the renowned Pyramid Texts; and the older pyramids attributed to kings of the Third and Fourth Dynasties.
…The textbooks will tell us that the first of Egypt’s imposing pyramids was built by a king named Zoser, the second Pharaoh of the Third Dynasty (circa 2650 B.C. by most counts). Selecting a site west of Memphis, on the plateau that served as the necropolis (city of the dead) of that ancient capital, he instructed his brilliant scientist and architect named Imhotep to build him a tomb that would surpass all previous tombs. Until then, the royal custom was to carve out a tomb in the rocky ground, bury the king, and then cover the grave with a giant horizontal tombstone called a mastaba that in time grew to substantial dimensions. The ingenious Imhotep, some scholars hold, covered the original mastaba over the tomb of Zoser with layer upon layer of ever smaller mastabas, in two phases, achieving a step pyramid. Beside it, within a large rectangular courtyard, a variety of functional and decorative buildings were erected – chapels, funerary temples, storehouses, attendant’s quarters and so on, the whole area was then surrounded by a magnificent wall. The pyramids and the ruins of some of the adjoining buildings and the wall can still be seen at Sakkara – a name believed to have honored Seker, the "hidden God."
Presumably it was Sekhemkhet, who followed Zoser on the throne, who began to build the second step pyramid, also at Sakkara. It never really got off the ground, for reasons unknown (perhaps the missing ingredient was the enigmatic genius of science and engineering, Imhotep). A third step pyramid… it is logically attributed by some scholars to the next Pharaoh on the throne, named Khaba.
…In the absence of evidence (of other Pharaohs) the next in line was Huni. Through much circumstantial evidence, it is held however that he only commenced the construction, and that the attempt to complete the pyramid was undertaken by his successor Sneferu.
…This pyramid, according to the texts was a true-pyramid, but was a failure, the outer walls collapsed and "all that remains of that attempt is part of the solid core, with a large mound of debris all around it. However Sneferu ordered two more pyramids, the Bent Pyramid, called so because the builders changed the pyramid’s angle in mid construction, this pyramid still stands. And the Red Pyramid, due to the hue of its stones, rises as a triangle from a square base, by changing the perfect inclination of 52 degrees to that of 44 degrees.
…Sneferu was the father of Khufu (whom Greek historians called Cheops); it has thus been assumed that the son followed the achievement of his father by building the next true pyramid – only a larger and grander one: the Great Pyramid of Giza. It stands majestically as it has stood for millennia in the company of two other major pyramids, attributed to his successors Chefra (Chephren) and Menka-ra (Mycerinus); they three are surrounded by smaller satellite pyramids, temples, mastabas, tombs and the unique Sphinx.
Though attributed to different rulers, the three obviously were planned and executed as a cohesive group , perfectly aligned not only to the cardinal points of the compass but also with one another. Indeed, triangulations which begin with these three monuments can be extended to measure the whole of Egypt – the whole of Earth, for that matter. This was first realized in modern times by Napoleon’s engineers: they selected the apex of the Great Pyramid as the focal point from which they triangulated and mapped Lower Egypt.
…This was made even easier by the discovery that the site is located, for all intent and purposes, right on the thirtieth parallel (north). The whole Giza complex of massive monuments had been erected at the eastern edge of the Lybian Plateau, which begins in Lybia in the west and stretches to the very banks of the Nile. Though only some 150 feet above the river’s valley below, the Giza site has a commanding and unobstructed view to the four horizons. The Great Pyramid stands at the extreme northeastern edge of a protrusion of the plateau, a few hundred feet to the north and east, sands and mud begin, making such massive structures impossible.
…The alignment with the cardinal points of the compass, the inclination of the sides at the perfect angle of about 52 degrees (at which the height of the pyramid in relation to its circumference is the same as that of a radius of a circle to its circumference); the square bases, set on perfectly level platforms – all bespeak of a high degree of scientific knowledge of mathematics, astronomy, geometry, geography and of course building and architecture, as well as the administrative ability to mobilize the necessary manpower, to plan and execute such massive and long-term projects. The wonderment only increases as one realizes the interior complexities and precision of the galleries, corridors, chambers, shafts and openings that have been engineered within the pyramids, their hidden entrances (always on the north face), the locking and plugging systems – all unseen from the outside, all in perfect alignment with each other, all executed within these artificial mountains as they were being built layer after layer.
…On ground that has been artificially leveled, the Great Pyramid rises on a thin platform whose four corners are marked by sockets of no ascertained function. In spite of the passage of millennia, continental shifts, Earth’s wobble around its own axis, earthquake and the immense weight of the pyramid itself, the relatively thin platform (less that twenty-two inches thick) is still undamaged and perfectly level.
…From a distance, the Great Pyramid and its two companions appear to be true pyramids; but when approached it is realized that they too are a kind of step pyramid, built layer upon layer (scholars call them courses) of stone, each layer smaller than the one below it.
…What gave it the smooth, inclined sides were the casing stones with which its sides were covered. These have been removed in Arab times and used for the constructions of nearby Cairo, but a few can still be seen in position near the top of the Second Pyramid…
…The Giza pyramids are nowadays also minus their apex or capstones which were shaped as pyramidions and may have been either made of metal or covered with a shiny metal – as the similar pyramidion-shaped tips of obelisks were. Who, when and why they were removed from their great heights, no one knows. It is known however that in later times these apex stones, resembling the Ben-Ben at Heliopolis were made of special granite and bore appropriate inscriptions. The one from the pyramid of Amen-emkhet at Dahshur, which was found buried some distance away from the pyramid, bore the emblem of the Winged Globe and the inscription:
The face of king Amen-em-khet is opened,
That he may behold the Lord of the Mountain of Light
When he sails across the sky.
Apex stone, resembling the Ben-Ben at Heliopolis.
Apex stone, Amen-emkhet at Dahshur.
Apex stone, Amen-emkhet at Dahshur.
…When Herodotus visited Giza in the fifth century, the capstones are not mentioned, but the pyramids’ sides were still covered with the smooth facings… It was Herodotus who transmitted the information that the Pharaoh who ordered the Pyramid built was Cheops (Khufu), why and what for, he does not say. Herodotus likewise attributed the Second Pyramid to Chephren (Chefra), "of the same dimensions, except that he lowered the height forty feet," and asserted that Mycerinus (Menkara) "too left a pyramid, but much inferior in size to his father’s – implying but not actually stating, that it was the Third Pyramid of Giza.
Remains of ruins of Teti’s Pyramid, Saqqarah, Egypt.
Zoser’s Step Pyramid, Saqqarah, Egypt.
Sculpture in Step Pyramid Complex of Zoser, designed by Imhotep. Saqqarah, Egypt.
Pyramid began under Huni and finished under Sneferu. The structure collapsed in ancient times. Burial complex lies to the left of the Pyramid.
Bent Pyramid at Dahshur. Built for Sneferu. A Small Pyramid for the Queen of Sneferu lies to the right of the Pyramid.
Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), Sneferu’s son. The Great Pyramid of Giza. Mastabas and other mortuary structures surround the Pyramid.
Chephren’s Pyramid at Giza. A Pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, photo taken from atop of Cheops Pyramid.
Mycerinus’ (Menkara) Triad: with Goddess Hathor to his right and goddess Hare Nome to his left.
Mycerinus’ (Menkara) Triad: with Goddess Hathor to his right and goddess Hare Nome to his left.
…In the first century A.D., the Roman geographer and cartographer Strabo recorded not only a visit to the pyramids, but also his entry to the Great Pyramid through an opening in the north face, hidden by a hinged stone. Going down a long and narrow passage, he reached a pit dug in the bedrock – as other Greek and Roman tourists had done before him.
…The location of this entryway was forgotten in the following centuries, and when the Moslem caliph Al Mamoon attempted to enter the pyramid in 820 A.D., he employed an army of masons, blacksmiths and engineers to pierce the stone and tunnel his way into the pyramid’s core.
…Blasting through the mass of stones by heating and cooling them until they cracked, by ramming and chiseling, Al Mamoon’s men advanced into the pyramid inch by inch.
They were about to give up, when they heard the sound of a falling stone not far ahead, indicating that some cavity was located there. With renewed vigor, they blasted their way into the original Descending Passage. Climbing up it they reached the original entrance which had evaded them from the outside. Climbing down, they reached the pit described by Strabo, it was empty. A shaft from the pit led nowhere.
…But Fate wished otherwise. The ramming and blasting by Al Mamoon’s men had loosened the stone, whose falling sound had encouraged them to tunnel on. As they were about to give up, the fallen stone was found lying in the Descending Passage. It had an odd, triangular shape. When the ceiling was examined it was found that the stone served to hide from view a large rectangular granite slab positioned at an angle to the Descending Passage. Did it hide the way to a really secret chamber – one obviously never before visited?
…Unable to move or brake the granite block, Al Mamoon’s men tunneled around it. It turned out that the granite slab was only one of a series of massive granite blocks, followed by limestone ones, that plugged an Ascending Passage – inclined upward at the same 26 degree angle that the Descending Passage was inclined downward (precisely half the angle of the pyramid’s outer inclination). From the top of the Ascending Passage, a horizontal passage led to a squarish room with a gabled roof and an unusual niche on its east wall; it was bare and empty. This chamber has since been found to lie precisely in the middle of the north-south axis of the pyramid – a fact whose significance has not yet been deciphered. The chamber has come to be known as the "Queen’s Chamber"; but the name is based on romantic notions and not on any shred of evidence.
…At the head of the Ascending Passage, there extended for 150 feet and at the same rising angle of 26 degrees a Grand Gallery of intricate and precise construction. Its sunken floor is flanked by two ramps that run the length of the Gallery; in each ramp there are cut a series of evenly spaced rectangular slots, facing each other. The Gallery’s walls rise more than 18 feet in seven corbels, each section extending three inches out above the lower one, so that the Gallery narrows as it rises. At its top, the Gallery’s ceiling is the exact width as the sunken floor between the ramps.
…At the uppermost end of the Gallery, a huge stone formed a platform. Flush with it a short and comparatively narrow and low corridor (only 3.5 feet high) led to an ante-chamber of extremely complex construction, having been equipped to lower with a simple maneuver (the pull of a rope?) three solid granite walls that could vertically plug the passage and block further advance.
…A short corridor, of a height and width similar to the former one then led to a high-ceilinged room constructed of red polished granite – the so called King’s Chamber. It was empty except for a granite block hewed out to suggest a lidless coffer. Its precise workmanship included grooves for a lid or top section. Its measurements, as has since been determined, exhibited knowledge of profound mathematical formulas. But it was found totally empty.
…Was this whole mountain of stone, then, erected to hide an empty "coffer" in an empty chamber? Blackened torch marks and the evidence of Strabo attest that the Descending Passage was visited before; if there had ever been treasure in that subterranean room, it was removed long ago. But the Ascending Passage was most definitely blocked tight when Al Mamoon’s men reached it in the ninth century A.D. The theory of the pyramids as royal tombs held that they were raised to protect the Pharaoh’s mummy and the treasures buried with it from robbers and other uninvited disturbers of his eternal peace. Accordingly, the plugging of the passages is presumed to have taken place as soon as the mummy in its coffin was placed in the burial chamber. Yet there was a plugged passage – with absolutely nothing, except for an empty stone coffer, in the whole pyramid.
…In time, other rulers, scientists, adventurers have entered the pyramid, tunneled and blasted through it, discovering other features of its inner structure – including two sets of shafts which some believe were air ducts (for whom?) and others assert for astronomical observations (by whom?). Although scholars persist in referring to the stone coffer as a sarcophagus (its size could well hold a human body), the fact is that there is nothing, absolutely nothing to support a claim that the Great Pyramid was a royal tomb.
…"Indeed the notion that the pyramids were built as Pharaonic tombs has remained unsupported by concrete evidence.
Of Zoser’s Pyramid, Mr. Sitchin explains about other mummies found in later centuries:
…It is now generally accepted that all these extra mummies (found in Zoser’s Pyramid) and coffins represent intrusive burials, mainly the entombment of the dead from a later time by intruding on the sanctity of the sealed galleries and chambers. But was Zoser himself ever entombed in the pyramid – was there ever an "original burial?"
…Many eminent Egyptologists now believe that the pyramid was only a symbolic burial place for Zoser, and that the king was buried in the richly decorated Southern Tomb, topped by a large rectangular superstructure with a concave room which also contained the imperative chapel – just as depicted in some Egyptian drawings.
…The step pyramid to have been begun by Zoser’s successor, Sekhemkhet, also contained a "burial chamber." It housed an alabaster "sarcophagus," which was empty. Textbooks tell that the archaeologist who discovered the chamber and the stone coffer (Zakaria Goneim) concluded that the chamber had been penetrated by grave robbers, who stole the mummy and all other contents of the tomb; but that is not entirely true. In fact, Mr. Goneim found the vertically sliding door of the alabaster coffer shut and sealed with plaster, and the remains of a dried-out wreath still rested on top of the coffin. As he later recalled, "hopes were now raised to a high pitch: but when the sarcophagus was opened, it was found to be empty and unused." Had any king been buried there? While some still say yes, others are convinced that the pyramid of Sekhemkhet (jar stoppers bearing his name attest to the identification) was only a cenotaph (an empty, symbolic tomb).
…The third step pyramid, the one attributed to Khaba, also contained a "burial chamber"; it was found to be completely bare: no mummy, not even a sarcophagus. Archaeologists have identified in the same vicinity the subterranean remains of yet another, unfinished pyramid believed to have been begun by Khaba’s successor. Its granite substructure contained an unusual oval "sarcophagus" sunken into the stone floor (as an ultra-modern bathtub). Its lid was still in place, shut tight with cement. There was nothing inside.
…The next two pyramids are even more embarrassing to the pyramids-as-tombs theory. The two pyramids at Dahshur (the Bent and the Red) were both built by Sneferu. The first has two "burial chambers," the other three. All for Sneferu? If the pyramid was built by each Pharaoh to serve as his tomb, why did Sneferu build two pyramids? Needless to say, the chambers were totally empty when discovered, devoid even of sarcophagi. After some more determined excavations by the Egyptian Antiquities Service in 1947 and again in 1953 (especially in the Red Pyramid) the report admitted that "No trace of a royal tomb has been found there."
And so continues this most interesting chapter. Mr. Sitchin mentions numerous successors, finding nothing in the sarcophagus when discovered, and the repeated findings of later mummies by intrusion. The graphics on the book, of the structures of the pyramids are a great aid to understand the enigmatic complexity of these standing monuments.
Mr. Sitchin thus concludes this chapter:
…Where were the Sixth Dynasty kings really buried? The royal tombs of that dynasty and of earlier ones were all the way south, at Abydos. This, as the other evidence, should have completely dispelled the notion that the tombs were cenotaphs and the pyramids the real tombs; nevertheless, long held beliefs die hard.
…The facts bespeak the opposite. The Old Kingdom pyramids never held a Pharaoh’s body because they were never meant to hold a king’s body. In the Pharaoh’s simulated journey to the Horizon, they were built as beacons to guide his ka to the Stairway to Heaven – just as the pyramids originally raised by gods had served as beacons for the gods when they "sailed across the sky."
…Pharaoh after Pharaoh, we suggest attempted to emulate not the pyramid of Zoser, but the Pyramids of the Gods: the pyramids at Giza.