…The assertion, first recorded and then transmitted by the Sumerians, that "Man" was created by the Nefilim, appears at first sight to clash both with the theory of evolution and with the Judeo-Christian tenets based on the Bible. But in fact, the information contained in the Sumerian texts – and only that information – can affirm the validity of the theory of evolution and the truth of the biblical tale – and show that there really is no conflict at all between the two.
…The Sumerian texts state that when the Nefilim first came to Earth, the arts of grain cultivation, fruit planting, and cattle raising had not yet extended to Earth. The biblical account likewise places the creation of Man in the sixth "day" of phase of the evolutionary process…
…All the Sumerian texts assert that the gods created Man to do their work. Putting the explanation in words uttered by Marduk, the Creation epic reports the decision:
I will produce a lowly Primitive;
"Man" shall be his name.
I will create a Primitive Worker;
He will be charged with the service of the gods,
that they might have their ease.
…That man was created to be a servant of the gods did not strike to ancient peoples as a peculiar idea at all. In biblical times, the deity was "Lord," "Sovereign," "King," "Ruler," "Master." The term that is commonly translated as "worship" was in fact "avod" ("work"). Ancient and biblical Man did not "worship" his god; he worked for him.
…In the Sumerian versions, the decision to create Man was adopted by the gods in their Assembly. Significantly, the Book of Genesis – purportedly exalting the achievements of a sole Deity – uses the plural Elohim (literally, "deities") to denote "God," and reports an astonishing remark:
And Elohim said "Let us make Man in our image, after our likeness."
…Whom did the sole but plural Deity address, and who were the "us" in whose plural image and plural likeness Man was to be made? The Book of Genesis does not provide the answer. Then, when Adam and Eve ate of the fruit of the Tree of Knowing, Elohim issued a warning to the same unnamed colleagues: "Behold, Man has become as one of us, to know good and evil."
…Since the biblical story of Creation, like the other tales of beginnings in Genesis, stems from Sumerian origins, the answer is obvious. Condensing the many gods into a Supreme Deity, the biblical tale is but an edited version of the Sumerian reports of the discussions in the Assembly of the Gods.
…The Old Testament took pains to make clear that Man was neither a god nor from the heavens. "The Heavens are the Heavens of the Lord, unto Mankind Earth He hath given." The new being was called "the Adam" because he was created of the "adama," the Earth’s soil. He was, in other words, "the Earthling."
…Lacking only certain "knowing" and a divine span of life, the Adam was in all other respects created in the image (selem) and likeness (dmut) of his Creator(s). The use of both terms in the texts was meant to leave no doubt that;
"Man was similar to the Gods both physically and emotionally, externally and internally."
…Although the biblical admonition against the worship of pagan images gave rise to the notion that the Hebrew God had neither image nor likeness, not only the Genesis tale but other biblical reports attest to the contrary. The god of the ancient Hebrews could be seen face-to-face, could be wrestled with, could be heard and spoken to, he had a head and feet, hands and fingers, and a waist. The biblical God and his emissaries looked like men and acted like men – because men were created to look like and act like the gods.
…But in this very simplicity lies a great mystery. How could a new creature possibly be a virtual physical, mental, and emotional replica of the Nefilim? How, indeed, was Man created?
…In November 1859, an English Naturalist by the name of Charles Darwin published a treatise called On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life.
…The Christian world had been jostled earlier when, from 1788 on, noted geologists had begun to express their belief that Earth was of great antiquity, much, much greater than the roughly 5,500 years of the Hebrew calendar. Nor was the notion of evolution as such the explosive: Earlier scholars had noted such a process, and Greek scholars as far back as the fourth century B.C. compiled data on the evolution of animal and plant life.
…Darwin’s shattering bombshell was the conclusion that all living things – Man included – were products of evolution. Man, contrary to the then-held belief, was not generated spontaneously.
…Evolution cannot account for the appearance of Homo sapiens, which happened virtually overnight in terms of the millions of years evolution requires, and with no evidence of earlier stages that would indicate a gradual change from Homo erectus.
…The hominid of the genus Homo is a product of evolution. but Homo Sapiens is the product of some sudden, revolutionary event. He appeared inexplicably some 300,000 years ago, millions of years too soon.
…The scholars have no explanation, but we do. The Sumerian and Babylonian texts do. The Old Testament does.
…Homo sapiens – modern Man – was brought about by the ancient gods.
…As we have already shown, the orbit of the Nefilim’s planet equaled a shar, or 3,600 Earth years. Forty shars, or 144,000 Earth years, after their landing, the Anunnaki protested, "No more!" If the Nefilim first landed on Earth, as we have concluded, some 450,000 years ago, then the creation of Man took place some 300,000 years ago!
…The Nefilim did not create the mammals or the primates or the hominids. The Adam of the Bible was not the genus Homo, but the being who is our ancestor – the first Homo sapiens. It is modern Man as we know him that the Nefilim created.
…The key to understand this crucial fact lies in the tale of a slumbering Enki, aroused to be informed that the gods had decided to form an adamu, and that it was his task to find the means. He replied:
"The creature whose name you uttered – "IT EXISTS!"
…and he added: "Bind upon it" – on the creature that already exists – "the image of the gods."
…Here, then, is the answer to the puzzle: The Nefilim did not "create" Man out of nothing; rather, they took an existing creature and manipulated it, to "bind upon it" the "image of the gods.
Mr. Sitchin gives an overview, that at their arrival on Earth, 435,000 years ago, the Nefilim very possibly were observing the primitive mammals, or even captured this interesting primates.
…Many cylinder seals have been found that depict this shaggy ape-man among his animal friends.
…Faced with the need for manpower, resolved to obtain a Primitive Worker, the Nefilim saw a ready-made solution: to domesticate a suitable animal.
…The animal was available – but Homo erectus posed a problem. On the one hand, he was too intelligent and wild to become simply a docile beast of work. On the other hand, he was not really suited to the task… He needed enough cleverness and understanding to be an obedient and useful "amelu" – a serf.
…Observing the various forms of life on Earth, the Nefilim and their chief scientist, Ea, needed little time to realize what had happened: During the celestial collision, their planet had seeded Earth with its life. Therefore, the being that was available was really akin to the Nefilim – though in a less evolved form.
…The process that Ea recommended in order to achieve a quick evolutionary advancement of Homo erectus was, we believe, genetic manipulation.
…We should assume that the Nefilim – being capable of space travel 450,000 years ago – were also equally advanced, compared to us today, in the field of life sciences. We should also assume that they were aware of the various alternatives by which two preselected sets of chromosomes could be combined to obtain a predetermined genetic result; and that whether the process was akin to cloning, cell fusion, genetic transplant, or methods as yet unknown to us, they knew these processes and could carry them out, not only in the laboratory flask but also with living organisms.
…It is quite conceivable that before resorting to the creation of a being in their own image, the Nefilim attempted to come up with a "manufactured servant" by experimenting with other alternatives: the creation of a hybrid ape-man-animal. Some of these artificial creatures may have survived for a while but were certainly unable to reproduce…
…Sumerian texts, too, speak of deformed humans created by Enki and the Mother Goddess Ninhursag, in the course of their efforts to fashion a perfect Primitive Worker.
…But finally the perfect Man was achieved, the one Enki named Adapa; the Bible, Adam; our scholars, Homo sapiens. This being was so much akin to the gods that one text even went so far as to point out that the Mother Goddess gave to her creature, Man, "a skin as the skin of a god" – a smooth, hairless body, quite different from that of the shaggy ape-man.
…With this final product, the Nefilim were genetically compatible with the daughters of Man and able to marry them and have children by them. But such compatibility could exist only if Man had developed from the same "seed of life" as the Nefilim. This, indeed, is what ancient texts attest to.
…Called upon to fashion a man, the Mother Goddess "Washed her hands, pinched off clay, mixed it in the steppe." (It is fascinating to note here the sanitary precautions taken by the goddess. She "washed her hands." We encounter such clinical measures and procedures in other creation texts as well).
…Following the mixing of the "blood" and "clay," the childbearing phase would complete the bestowal of a divine "imprint" on the creature.
The new born’s fate thou shalt pronounce;
Ninki will fix upon it the image of the gods;
And what it will be is "Man."
…Ninki being a spouse of Enki.
…Scholars have surmised that references to Adapa as a "son" of Ea implied that the god loved this human so much that he adopted him. But in the same text Anu refers to Adapa as "the human offspring of Enki." It appears that the involvement of Enki’s spouse in the process of creating Adapa, the "model Adam," did create some genealogical relationship between the new Man and his god: It was Ninki who was pregnant with Adapa!
…Ninki blessed the new being and presented it to Ea.
…Once Adapa/Adam proved to be the right creature, he was used as the genetic model or "mold" for the creation of duplicates, and those duplicates were not only male but male and female. As we showed earlier, the biblical "rib" from which Woman was fashioned was a play on words on the Sumerian TI ("rib" and "life") – confirming that Eve was made of Adam’s "life’s essence."
Mr. Sitchin does not leave the tales of the Old Testament out. He compares them, and indicates that the biblical texts are condensations of the original Sumerian sources, sometimes creating contradictions.
But Adam had duplicates, and Mr. Sitchin provides the several verses from texts where it is indicated how 14 female were used to deposit the "mixed clay" in their womb. There were surgical procedures, with hygienic measures.
How was the Creation of Man accomplished?
…The text "When the gods as men" contains a passage whose purpose was to explain why the "blood" of a god had to be mixed into the "clay." The "divine" element required was not simply the dripping blood of a god, but something more basic and lasting. The god that was selected, we are told, had TE.E.MA – a term the leading authorities on the text (W.G. Lambert and A.R. Millard of Oxford University) translate as "personality." But the ancient term is much more specific; it literally means "that which houses that which binds the memory." Further on, the same term appears in the Akkadian version as etemu, which is translated as "spirit."
…In both instances we are dealing with that "something" in the blood of the god that was the repository of his individuality. All these, we feel certain, are but roundabout ways of stating that what Ea was after, when he put the god’s blood through a series of "purifying baths" was the god’s genes.
…The purpose of mixing this divine element thoroughly with the earthly element was also spelled out:
In the clay, god and Man shall be bound,
to a unity brought together;
So that to the end of days
the Flesh and the Soul
which in a god have ripened –
that Soul in a blood-kingship be bound;
As its Sign life shall proclaim.
So that this not be forgotten,
Let the "Soul" in a blood-kingship be bound.
…These are strong words, little understood by scholars. The text states that the god’s blood was mixed into the clay so as to bind god and Man genetically "to the end of days" so that both the flesh ("image") and the soul ("likeness") of the gods would become imprinted upon Man in a kingship of blood that could never be severed.
…The evidence of the ancient texts, Mesopotamian as well as biblical, suggests that the process adopted for merging two sets of genes – those of a god and those of Homo erectus – involved the use of male genes as the divine element and female genes as the earthly element. Repeatedly asserting that the Deity created Adam in his image and in his likeness, the Book of Genesis later describes the birth of Adam’s son Seth in the following words:
"And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years,
and had an offspring
in his likeness and after his image;
and he called his name Seth."
…The terminology is identical to that used to describe the creation of Adam by the Deity. But Seth was certainly born to Adam by a biological process – the fertilization of a female egg by the male sperm of Adam, and ensuing conception, pregnancy, and birth.
…If the "clay" onto which the godly element was mixed was an earthly element – as all texts insist – then the only possible conclusion is that the male sperm of a god – his genetic material – was inserted into the egg of an ape-woman!
…The Akkadian term for the "clay" – or, rather, "molding clay" – is tit. But its original spelling was TI.IT ("that which is with life"). In Hebrew, tit means "mud"; but its synonym is bos, which share a root with bisa ("marsh") and besa ("egg").
…The story of Creation is replete with plays on words. We have seen the double and triple meanings of Adam-adama-adamtu-dam. The epithet for the Mother Goddess, NIN.TI, meant both "lady of life" and "lady of the rib." Why not, then, bos-bisa-besa ("clay-mud-egg") as a play of words for the female ovum?
…The texts make abundantly clear that while Ea built a brick house by the water in Eridu, in the Abzu (southern Africa) he built a house adorned with precious stones and silver. It was there that his creature, Man, originated.
…One can even conclude from the various texts that the creation of Man caused a rift among the gods. It would appear that at least at first the new Primitive Workers were confined to the Land of Mines. As a result, the Anunnaki who were toiling in Sumer proper were denied the benefits of the new manpower.
But Enlil heard the plea of the Anunnaki in Sumer and by force brought manpower from Abzu to do the toiling.