The Papyrus of Ani, a New Translation

Plate 1

Plate 1

This is an English translation of the Papyrus of Ani, a copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, dating from the 19th dynasty (ca. 1250 BC?). Ani was an official in the court of a 19th dynasty king—his title was “Scribe and Accountant of the Offerings of All the Gods.” This scroll was placed in his tomb to provide him with the hymns, prayers, and spells he would need to survive the dangers of the next life. (Translated by Neil Parker.)

A note about the translations

Introductory Hymns and the Judgment of the Soul

Chapter 15, hymn to Ra
An adoration of Ra when he rises on the eastern horizon of heaven
Chapter 15, hymn to Osiris
An adoration of Osiris Wen-Nefer, the great god in Abydos
Chapter 30b
(A spell for not letting the heart of the deceased be driven away from him in the underworld—title not given in this copy)

Miscellaneous Necessary Prayers and Spells

Chapter 1
The beginning of the spells of coming forth by day, of exalting and glorifying, etc.
Chapter 22
A spell to give a mouth to the deceased
Chapter 17
The beginning of the exultations and glorifications, of coming forth and going down in the underworld, etc.
Chapter 147
(The seven chambers—no title given)
Chapter 146
(The ten gateways of the house of Osiris—no title given)
Chapter 18
(The ten divine Councils—no title given)
Chapter 23
A spell to open the mouth of the deceased
Chapter 24
A spell to bring words of power to the deceased
Chapter 26
A spell to give a heart to the deceased
Chapter 30b (2nd copy)
A spell for not letting the heart of the deceased be driven away from him in the underworld
Chapter 61
A spell for not letting a man’s soul be snatched away from him in the underworld
Chapter 54
A spell to give breath in the underworld
Chapter 29
A spell for not letting the heart of a man be snatched away from him in the underworld
Chapter 27
A spell for not letting the heart of a man be taken from him in the underworld
Chapter 58
A spell to breathe air and have mastery over water in the underworld
Chapter 59
A spell to breathe air and have mastery over water in the underworld
Chapter 44
A spell for not dying again in the underworld
Chapter 45
A spell for not rotting in the underworld
Chapter 46
A spell for not perishing and for being alive in the underworld
Chapter 50
A spell for not entering to the god’s execution block
Chapter 93
A spell for not letting a man be carried to the east in the underworld
Chapter 43
A spell for not letting a man’s head be cut off from him in the underworld
Chapter 89
A spell to let a soul and its body come together in the underworld
Chapter 91
A spell for not letting a man’s soul be imprisoned in the underworld
Chapter 92
A spell to open the tomb for the soul and the shadow, to come forth by day, and to have mastery over the legs
Chapter 74
A spell to raise up the legs and come forth on earth
Chapter 8
A spell to cross over into the land of Amentet by day
Chapter 2
A spell to come forth by day and live after dying
Chapter 9
A spell to come forth by day after crossing into the death-god’s kingdom
Chapter 132
A spell to let a man turn himself back to see his house on earth
Chapter 10, aka Chapter 48
Another spell for a man to come forth by day against his enemies in the underworld

Hymns to Ra and Osiris

Chapter 15, hymn to Ra
Adoration of Ra from his rising on the horizon to his setting in life
Chapter 15, hymn to Osiris
Adoration of Osiris, lord of eternity, Wen-nefer, and Harmachis numerous of forms and great of images, and Ptah-Seker-Atum in Heliopolis, lord of the coffin
Chapter 15, litany
(no title)
Chapter 15, hymn to Ra
Adoration of Ra when he rises on the eastern horizon of heaven, with those who are in his following
Chapter 133
To be spoken on the [first] day of the month
Chapter 134
Adoration of Ra on the [first] day of the month, when [his] boat sails.

Advancing to the Divine Councils

Chapter 18 (2nd copy)
(The ten divine Councils —no title given)
Chapter 124
A spell to go down to the divine Council of Osiris

The Spells of Transformation

Chapter 86
The beginning of the spells for making transformations: To assume the form of a swallow
Chapter 77
To assume the form of a hawk of gold
Chapter 78
To assume the form of a divine hawk
Chapter 87
To assume the form of a horned snake
Chapter 88
To assume the form of Sebek
Chapter 82
To assume the form of Ptah
Chapter 85 (1st half)
To assume the form of the soul of Atum
Chapter 83
To assume the form of a phoenix
Chapter 84 (& 2nd half of chapter 85)
To assume the form of a heron
Chapter 81a
To assume the form of a water lilly
Chapter 80
To assume the form of a god who gives light and darkness

Not Dying Again

Chapter 175
A spell for not dying again

In the Hall of Truth

Chapter 125, part 1
A spell for entering the courtyard of truth, praising Osiris at the head of the west
Chapter 125, part 2
(The “negative confession”)
Chapter 42
(The deification of members, also known as the spell to drive back slaughter in Herakleopolis)
Chapter 125, rubric
(Rubric for Chapter 125)

The Tomb and its Equipment

Chapter 155
The spell of the Djed of gold
Chapter 156
The spell of the Isis-amulet of red jasper
Chapter 29c
The spell of the heart of red stone
Chapter 166
The spell of the headrest placed under the head
Chapter 151
(The plan of the tomb—no title given)
Chapter 6
(A spell for not doing work in the underworld—title not given)

In the Field of Offerings

Chapter 110
The beginning of the spells of the Field of Offerings, and the spells of coming forth by day, and entering into and coming forth from the underworld, and arriving in the Field of Reeds, and being at peace in the great town of the lady of winds
Chapter 148
(A spell to provide the deceased with nourishment—title not given)
Chapter 185
Praise of Osiris at the head of the West, Wen-nefer at the heart of Abydos
Chapter 186
(Hymn to Hathor—title not given)

Additional Information

The primary sources used for the translation were two editions of E. A. Wallis Budge’s translation of Ani’s papyrus (The Egyptian Book of the Dead, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1967, and The Book of the Dead, Secaucus, NJ: University Books, Inc., 1960).

E. A. Wallis Budge: The Papyrus of Ani, from the The Egyptian Book of the Dead, 1895.

Editorial markings

On those browsers which support it, text written in red in the original papyrus is emphasized like this.

Editorial insertions and comments are placed in square brackets, [like this].

Why aren’t the chapter numbers in order?

The chapter numbering scheme use by Egyptologists for the Book of the Dead is based on the numbering used by Richard Lepsius in his edition of the Papyrus of Iwef-Ankh (Das Todtenbuch der Ägypter nach dem hieroglyphischen Papyrus in Turin, Leipzig, 1842). The Papyrus of Iwef-Ankh is a much later document, written at a time when the order of the chapters was fixed by tradition. In 19th dynasty Books of the Dead, like that of Ani, the chapter order was not yet fixed (though there is an overall logic apparent in the ordering of Ani’s papyrus). The chapters of Ani’s papyrus are presented here in the order in which they occur on the original scroll.


Continue to Introductory Hymns and the Judgment of the Soul

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